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A to Z


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Abbasids: Encyclopedia of the Orient; Wikipedia

Adhan:  Wikipedia. Listen to audio file

"Afghans" (Arab war veterans): Medea 

Alawi (Alawite): Medea; Wikipedia

Almohads: Wikipedia

Almoravids (al-Murabitoun): Wikipedia

Arabs (definition): al-Bab; Wikipedia

Arab Free Trade Area (AFTA): Medea  

Arab League (League of Arab States): al-Bab; Wikipedia

Arabic alphabet: Wikipedia. Romanisation of: al-Bab

Arabic language: al-Bab; Wikipedia

Arabsat: Official website; Medea; Wikipedia 

Argan: al-Bab

Ashkenazim: Medea; Wikipedia

Assyrians: al-Bab; Wikipedia

Averroes (Ibn Rushd) 1126-1198: Medea; Wikipedia

Avicenna (Ibn Sina) 980-1037: Wikipedia


Ba'athism: Medea; Wikipedia

Baha'i: Wikipedia

Balfour Declaration: Medea; Wikipedia

Barcelona Declaration: Medea; Wikipedia

Battutah, Ibn: Wikipedia

Bedouin / badawi: Wikipedia

Berbers: al-Bab; Wikipedia

Bin Laden, Osama: al-Bab; Wikipedia 

Burqa: Wikipedia


Caliph: Medea; Wikipedia

Camp David Accords (1978): Wikipedia

Camp David summit (2000): Wikipedia

Chador: Wikipedia

Christians  (in Arab countries): Medea; churches in the Middle East: Medea

Circassians: Medea

Conference on Security and Cooperation in the Mediterranean (CSCM): Medea  

Copts: Wikipedia 

Couscous: Wikipedia


Darfur conflict: Wikipedia; BBC

Date palm: Wikipedia

Dhikr: Wikipedia [listen to audio file]

Druzes: Medea; Wikipedia


Euphrates (river): al-Bab; Wikipedia

Euro-Arab Dialogue: Medea


Fatah: Medea; Wikipedia; BBC

Fatihah: Wikipedia

Fatima: Wikipedia

Fatimids: Wikipedia

Fatwa: Encyclopedia of the Orient; Wikipedia

FFS, Socialist Forces Front: Medea

FIS, Islamic Salvation Front: Medea

Force 17 (Palestine): BBC


Gama'at al-Islamiyya: Medea; Wikipedia

GCC, Gulf Cooperation Council: Medea; Wikipedia

Ghazali, al-: Wikipedia

GIA, Armed Islamic Group: Medea; Wikipedia


Hadith (Traditions of the Prophet): Wikipedia

Hajj: al-Bab; Wikipedia

Hamas (Harakat al-Muqawamah al-Islamiyyah): al-Bab; Wikipedia; BBC

Hannibal: Wikipedia  

Harun al-Rashid: Wikipedia

Hashemites: Medea; Wikipedia

Henna: al-Bab; Encyclopedia of the Orient; Wikipedia

Hijab: Wikipedia

Hizbullah (Hezbollah): al-Bab; Wikipedia

Human rights: al-Bab


Ibn Battutah: Wikipedia

'Id al-Adha: Wikipedia

'Id al-Fitr: Wikipedia

Ihram: Wikipedia

Imam: Medea; Wikipedia

INC, Iraqi National Congress: Medea; Wikipedia

International Islamist Front: Medea

Intifada: Medea; Wikipedia

Islah Party: Medea (Yemen)

Islamic banks: Medea; Wikipedia

Islamic Jihad (Palestine): BBC

Islamism: Medea; Wikipedia

Isma'ilis: Wikipedia


Jihad: Wikipedia

Jilbab: Wikipedia

Jinn: Wikipedia

Jordan (river): al-Bab; Wikipedia

Jugurtha: Wikipedia


Ka'bah: Wikipedia

Kadima party (Israel): Wikipedia

Karbala' (battle of): Wikipedia

Khayyam, Omar: Wikipedia

Kiswah: Wikipedia

Koran, the: al-Bab; Wikipedia

Kurds: al-Bab


Labour Party (Israel): Medea; Wikipedia  

Lawrence of Arabia (T E Lawrence): al-Bab

League of Arab States: al-Bab; Wikipedia

Lebanese Forces: Medea; Wikipedia

Levant: Wikipedia

Likud: Medea; Wikipedia 

Lockerbie (bombing of Pan Am flight 103 in 1988): Wikipedia; documents related to the bombing: al-Bab


Madrid Conference (1991): Wikipedia; Palestine Facts; Jewish Virtual Library

Maghreb Arab Union  (MAU): Official website; Medea; Wikipedia

Mahdi: Wikipedia

Maimonides: Wikipedia

Manichaeism: Wikipedia

Masinissa / Massinissa: Wikipedia

Mawlid: Wikipedia

Mediterranean Games: Medea; Wikipedia

Mihrab: Wikipedia

Minaret: Wikipedia

Minbar: Wikipedia

MINURSO (Western Sahara): Medea; Wikipedia  

Muezzin: Wikipedia

Muslim Brotherhood: Medea; Wikipedia

Mutanabbi, al-: Wikipedia


Nile (river): al-Bab  

Nilesat: Official website; Medea

Niqab: Wikipedia

No-Fly Zones (Iraq): MedeaBBC; Wikipedia

Nubia: Wikipedia

Numidia: Wikipedia


OAPEC (Organisation of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries): Official website; Medea; Wikipedia 

OIC (Organisation of the Islamic Conference): Official website; Medea; Wikipedia

OPEC (Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries): Official website; Medea; Wikipedia

Open Bridges policy: Medea

Orient House (Jerusalem): Official website; Medea; Wikipedia 

Oslo Accords: Medea; Wikipedia


PAEAC (Parliamentary Association for Euro-Arab Cooperation): Medea

Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC): Medea

Palestinian National Authority (PNA): Medea  

Palestinian National Council (PNC): Medea  

Pan-Arab Games: Medea; Wikipedia

PFLP (Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine): Official website (Arabic); Medea; BBC; Wikipedia 

PFLP-GC (Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command): Medea; Wikipedia

Pilgrimage (Hajj): al-Bab; Wikipedia

PLO (Palestine Liberation Organisation): Wikipedia; Medea

PLO Charter (1968): Medea

PLO Executive Committee: Medea

Polisario: Wikipedia; Western Sahara Online 

Puntland: al-Bab; Wikipedia


Qadi: Wikipedia

Qat: al-Bab

Qibla: Wikipedia; Qibla calculator

Qur'an, the: al-Bab; Wikipedia


Ra'i (music): al-Bab

Ramadan: Medea; Wikipedia

RCD, Constitutional Union for Democracy (Tunisia): Medea

RCD, Union for Culture and Democracy (Algeria): Medea  

Restore Hope (US military operation in Somalia): al-Bab; Wikipedia 


Sahel and Sahara States Grouping: Medea (SSSG)

Saladin: Wikipedia

Salat (prayer): Wikipedia

Sanussi: Medea

Sephardim: Medea

Shahadah: Wikipedia

Shari'ah: Wikipedia

Sharif: Medea

Sheikh: Medea

Shi'ism: Wikipedia; Medea

Somaliland: Wikipedia

South Lebanon Army (SLA): Medea  

Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA): Medea

Sufism: Wikipedia

Sultan: Medea

Sunnism: Wikipedia; Medea

Surah: Wikipedia


Ta'if Agreement (1989): Wikipedia; Medea

Ta'if Treaty (1934): al-Bab

Tanzim (Palestine): BBC; Wikipedia

Temporary International Presence in Hebron (TIPH): Medea

Tifashi, Ahmed al-: Wikipedia

Tigris: al-Bab (river)

Tuaregs: Medea

Turkomans/Turkmen: al-Bab


Ulama: Medea

Umayyads: Wikipedia

'Umrah ("lesser pilrimage"): Wikipedia

UNDOF (Golan): Medea  

UNIFIL (Lebanon): Official website; Wikipedia; Medea

UNIKOM (Iraq-Kuwait): Medea  

UNMOVIC (Iraq): Medea  

UNOSOM I (Somalia): Medea  

UNOSOM II (Somalia): Medea  

UNRWA (Palestinian refugees): Medea  

UNSCO (Occupied Territories): Medea  

UNSCOM (Iraq): Medea  

UNTSO (Palestine): Medea  


Venice Declaration: Medea


Wahhabism: Medea

Waqf: Encyclopedia of the Orient

Western Sahara: al-Bab

WEU Mediterranean Framework: Medea

Wye River Memorandum: Medea


Yashmak: Wikipedia

Yassin (Sheikh Ahmad): BBC; Wikipedia 

Yazidism: Wikipedia


Zakat: Wikipedia

Zawiyya: Encyclopedia of the Orient

Zayyidism: Encyclopedia of the Orient

Zionism: Wikipedia


In the reference section


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Last revised on 05 August, 2015