Sexual diversity

Transgender Arabs

While there is much debate about the rights of women in the Middle East and the rights of gay and lesbian people have also begun to attract some attention, consideration of transgender rights lags far behind. 

In a region where gender segregation is widespread and dress codes are sometimes enforced by law, the problems of transgender people are especially acute. When so much of the social structure is based around a clear-cut distinction between male and female, anything that obscures the distinction is viewed as a problem and sometimes even as a threat to the established order.

Background articles

Transgender issues in the Middle East 
A series of 'long read' articles looking at social and religious issues, struggles for recognition and some examples of gender ambiguity in Arab history (al-bab, February 2016). The complete series can also be downloaded as a printable 23-page PDF.

Gendering the ungendered body 
Hermpahrodites in Medieval Islamic Law
Paula Sanders, 1991

The Effeminates of Early Medina 
Everett K Rowson. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1991

The Xanith: A Third Gender Role? 
Unni Wikan. Chapter from 'Behind the Veil in Arabia', 1982

Sex Change in Cairo: Gender and Islamic Law  
Jakob Skovgaard-Petersen, 1995

“They Hunt Us Down for Fun” 
Discrimination and police violence against transgender women in Kuwait. Human Rights Watch, 15 January 2012 

Cross-dressing in Middle Eastern dance 
(shira.net)

News reports

2016

A woman's fight for her manhood 
Zainab Abdulhafed Rabie always knew she was different, but it was only after her wedding night that she discovered she was actually a man. By Rasha al-Qahtani, Gulf Daily News, 25 May 2016

Transgender ruling in Lebanon an 'empowering' moment 
Activists celebrate case allowing transgender man to change official papers and hope it will help ease 
discrimination. By Anealla Safdar, Aljazeera, 6 February 2016

Lebanese court lets transgender man change legal status to male 
Reuters, 15 January 2016

Lebanese judge rules trans man can legally change gender 
Washington Blade, 15 January 2016

Cinemas stop showing ‘The Danish Girl’ after ban in Qatar 
Doha News, 11 January 2016

2015

Life as a transgender person in Egypt [video] 
BBC, 11 August 2015

The Untold Story Of Egypt’s Transgender Community 
By Salma Islam, Egyptian Streets, 12 July 2015

Transgender People Are at the Center of a Brutal Crackdown on LGBT Egyptians 
By Laura Dean, GlobalPost, 15 June 2015

On being transgender in Egypt 
By Pesha Magid, Mada Masr, 4 June 2015

2014

Morocco's transgender dancer courts acceptance 
Associated Press, 22 December 2014

Virginity tests, vile bodies: Stories from Sisi’s Egypt 
By Scott Long, A Paper Bird, 11 November 2014

Brutal gender crackdown in Egypt: The tomorrows that never came 
By Scott Long, A Paper Bird, 18 May 2014

Transgender surgery procedure set forth 
Arab News, 2 May 2014

2013

GCC to tighten gender tests for expat workers 
Arab News, 9 October 2013

Medical tests 'crazy' 
GDN Online, 9 October 2013

Gays 'to be barred from entering Gulf'
Medical screening tests to be used to reinforce decision 
Gulf News, 7 October 2013 

Gulf homosexual ban was ‘just a proposal’: Kuwait chief 
Possibility of medical checkup rule changes to be presented to GCC members, says Kuwait foreign ministry undersecretary Khalid Al Jarallah. Gulf News, 20 October 2013

Being transgender in Kuwait: “My biggest fear is a flat tyre” 
Human Rights Watch, 15 July 2013

'Tomboy' pageantry raided; energy drinks seized 
Emirates 24/7, 10 June 2013

Bahrain gives nod for sex changes 
By Courtney Trenwith
Thursday, 2 January 2014 

2012

Abu Dhabi police arrest man for allegedly cross-dressing 
The National, 19 December 2012

Cross-dresser jailed for tricking health inspector into stripping 
The National, 25 July 2012

Cross-dressing beautician 'watched health inspector strip' 
The National, 25 April 2012

Tourist warning: no cross-dressing, public intimacy 
New tourist brochure requests holidaymakers to have ‘respectful’ clothing and behaviour in public. Emirates 24/7, 5 July 2012

Kuwait: End police abuses against transgender women 
Law against ‘imitating the opposite sex’ leads to torture, arbitrary arrests. Human Rights Watch, 15 January 2012 

2011

The Gulf's gender anxiety 
Moral panic over transgender men and women is symptomatic of the Gulf's problem with shifting gender roles. By Rasha Moumneh, The Guardian, 6 July 2011

Cross-dressing women targeted in Dubai campaign 
The National, 1 June 2011

Transwoman refused entry at Dubai airport 
PinayTG, 3 May 2011

Shedding light on the 'Boyat' phenomenon 
Conference separates fact from fiction on the issue. Gulf News, 21 April 2011

2010

Ladies fume as cross-dressers use girls' toilets 
Police urges public to report incidents of men in women's clothing. Emirates 24/7, 20 October 2010

Man hauled to court again on cross-dressing charge 
The 30-year-old Egyptian worker appeared before the Dubai Appeals Court yesterday and denied the charge of cross-dressing and walking in a woman's bra and panty in public. Gulf News, 16 August 2010

Cross-dressing student has sentence reduced by appeal court 
The National, 20 July 2010

Transsexual's memoirs breaks new ground in Arab world 
AFP, 3 July 2010

Randa's story 
al-bab, 4 April 2010

Cross-dresser jailed over pornography 
The National, March 2010

Nine cross-dressers sentenced to one month in prison [Bahrain] 
Defendants were wearing women's clothing and had heavy makeup on their faces. Gulf News, 29 January 2010

2009

Legal Landmark: Bahrain Recognises Sex Change 
ABC News, 19 June 2009

Man convicted of cross-dressing 
A manager, who claimed he was training to play a female in a Bollywood film, has been charged with cross-dressing and using mascara at Mall of the Emirates. Gulf News, 31 January 2009

Cross-dresser says he was rehearsing for film role 
A manager has claimed that he was training on performing a female role in a Bollywood film when he was caught cross-dressing and using mascara at the Mall of the Emirates. Gulf news, 8 January 2009

2008

Sex-change cases surge for lawyer 
GDN Online, 25 July 2008

2006

Kuwait court refuses to recognise sex change 
Reuters, 21 March 2006

2004

Kuwaiti sex-change woman fights a lonely battle against Muslim conservatism 
The Associated Press, 2 November 2004

The great Kuwait sex debate 
Mail & Guardian, 11 October 2004

Five sisters undergoing sex change 
Arab News, 16 June 2004

Kuwait sex-change case upheld 
BBC, 25 April 2004