International border treaty between the Republic of Yemen and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
12 June, 2000
Unofficial translation by Brian Whitaker of Arabic text published in al-Hayat newspaper on 22 June, 2000. Preamble omitted.
The two contracting sides affirm the necessity and validity of the Treaty of Ta’if and its appendices, including the reports of the borders attached to it. They also affirm their commitment to the Memorandum of Understanding signed between the two countries on 27 Ramadan 1415 AH.
The final and permanent demarcation line of the borders between the Republic of Yemen and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is defined as follows:
a) The first part: This portion begins from the coastal marker on the Red Sea (precisely at the quay of Ra’s al-Ma’uj Shami, Radif Qarad outlet) and its co-ordinates are as follows: latitude 16, 24, 14, 8 north, and longitude 42, 46, 19, 7 east; it ends at the marker of Jabal al-Thar, whose co-ordinates are 44, 21, 58 east and 17, 26, 0 north (its details are shown by the co-ordinates in Appendix 1). The [national?] identity of the villages lying on the course of this part of the line will be defined according to what was stipulated by the Treaty of Ta’if and its appendices, including their tribal affiliation. In the event that any of the co-ordinates falls on the position or positions or villages of either party, the reference point for establishing the affiliation of this village, or these villages, will be its relationship to one of the two parties, and the course of the line will be amended accordingly when the border marker is set.
b) The second part: This is that portion of the border line which has not yet been defined but the two contracting parties have agreed to define this part amicably. This part begins at Jabal al-Thar (co-ordinates defined above) and ends at the geographical point of intersection between the line of latitude 19 north and the line of longitude 52 east (details of its co-ordinates are set out in Appendix 2).
c) The third part: This is the maritime portion of the border which begins from the land marker at the coast (precisely at the quay of Ra’s al-Ma’uj Shami, Radif Qarad outlet) - co-ordinates defined above - and ends at the limit of the sea border between the two countries (details of its co-ordinates are in the accompanying document No. 3).
(i) Desiring to set markers (columns) on the line of the border starting from the point where the two countries' borders meet the borders of the fraternal Sultanate of Oman at the geographical point of intersection between the line of latitude 19 north and the line of longitude 52 east and ending exactly at the wharf of Ras Al-Mua'j Shami, Radif Qarad outlet (co-ordinates shown in Appendix 1), the two contracting parties will commission an international company to undertake a field survey of the entire land and sea borders.
The specialised company carrying out the work and the joint team from the two contracting parties must follow absolutely the distances and directions between each point and the next one, and the other specifications which appear in the border reports attached to the Treaty of Ta’if. These provisions are binding on the two parties.
(ii) The specialised international company shall undertake preparation of detailed maps of the line of the land border between the two countries. These maps, when signed by representatives of the Republic of Yemen and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, will be relied upon as official maps demarcating the border between the two countries and will become an integral part of this treaty. The two contracting parties will sign an agreement to cover the cost of work by the company commissioned to erect the markers along the land border between the two countries.
The two contracting parties affirm their commitment to Article 5 of the Treaty of Ta’if regarding the withdrawal of any military position which is less than five kilometres from the line of the border as defined according to the reports of the border attached to the Treaty of Ta’if. In respect of the border line which has not yet been defined, starting from Jabal al-Thar up to the point of intersection of latitude 19 north with longitude 52 east, it is determined by Appendix 4 accompanying this Treaty.
This treaty will take effect after ratification according to the consequent steps in both the contracting countries and the exchange of documents of ratification on the part of the two countries.
For the Republic of Yemen
Abd al-Qadir Abd al-Rahman Bagammal
Deputy Prime Minister, Foreign Minister
For the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Jeddah, 10/3/1321 AH (equivalent to 12/6/2000 AD)
The geographical co-ordinates for the marker positions stipulated in the border reports attached to the Treaty of Ta’if.
Tables defining distances of the border line from latitude 19 east to longitude 52 north.*
The line of the maritime border between the Republic of Yemen and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
1. The line begins from the land point on the sea coast "precisely at the quay of Ra’s al-Ma’uj Shami, Radif Qarad outlet", with the following co-ordinates: (16, 24, 14, 8) north, (42, 46, 19, 7) east.
2. The line heads in a straight line parallel with the lines of latitude until it reaches the point (42, 09, 0) east.
3. The line bends in a south-westerly direction to the point with the following co-ordinates: 16, 24, 14, 8 north, 42, 09, 00 east.
4. From there in a straight line parallel with the lines of latitude in a westerly direction to the end of the maritime border between the two countries from a point with the co-ordinates 16, 17, 24 and 41, 47, 00.
The international border treaty between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Republic of Yemen regarding the organisation of pastoral rights, and the designation of the positions of armed forces beside the second part of the border line between the two countries, as indicated in this treaty, and the exploitation of shared natural wealth along the length of the land border line dividing the two countries.
a) The pastoral area on both sides of the second part of the border line indicated in this treaty is limited to 20 kilometers.
b) Shepherds from both countries may use the pastoral area and water sources on both sides of this part of border line in accordance with tribal traditions and prevailing customs for a distance not exceeding 20 kilometers.
c) The two contracting parties shall hold annual consultations to set crossing points for the pastoral lands according to conditions and current prospects for pasture.
(ii) Among the citizens of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and citizens of the Republic of Yemen, shepherds shall be exempt from:
a) The system of residence and passports, and will be issued with transit cards by the competent authorities [of the countries] to which those shepherds are affiliated.
b) Taxes and duties on personal belongings, foodstuffs and consumer goods that they carry with them. This does not prevent either of the parties from imposing customs duties on animals and commodities crossing for the purpose of trade.
(iii) Each of the contracting parties may impose restrictions and regulations which they consider appropriate regarding the number of vehicles crossing on to their territory with shepherds, in addition to the type and number of firearms which shepherds may carry provided that they are licensed by the relevant authorities in both countries, together with the identification of those carrying them.
(iv) In the event of that the outbreak of an epidemic disease affects animal wealth, each party has the right to take the necessary preventive measures and to impose restrictions on the import and export of infected animals. The specialised authorities in both countries should cooperate as far as possible to limit the spread of the epidemic.
(v) It is not permitted to either of the contracting parties to position armed forces at a distance of less than 20 kilometres on either side of the second part of the border line indicated in this treaty, and the activity of any party is limited to movement of mobile security patrols with customary weapons.
(vi) In the event of the discovery of shared natural wealth suitable for extraction and investment along the line of the border between the two countries, beginning precisely at the quay of Ra’s al-Ma’uj Shami, Radif Qarad outlet, to the point of intersection of the line of longitude 19 east with the line of latitude 52 north**, the two contracting parties will undertake the necessary negotiations between them for the joint exploitation of that wealth.
(vii) This appendix is considered an integral part of this treaty and will be ratified by the methods authorised in the two countries.
* The translation follows the Arabic text published in al-Hayat newspaper. It should say "latitude 19 north to longitude 52 east".
** Again, this follows the Arabic text published in al-Hayat, but it would locate the border in Poland.