Arabs Without God: Endnotes

المصادر والملاحظات

Chapter One:

  1. Author’s interview, May 2014.
  2. Husseini, Waleed al-: “Why I left Islam.” Proud Atheist blog, 30 August 2010. http://proud-a.blogspot.com/2010/08/why-i-left-islam.html
  3. Gross, Michael Joseph: “Disaster Movie.” Vanity Fair, 27 December, 2012. http://www.vanityfair.com/culture/2012/12/making-of-innocence-of-muslims
  4. Arab Attitudes Towards Political and Social Issues, Foreign Policy and the Media.” Poll conducted jointly by the Anwar Sadat Chair for Peace and Development at the University of Maryland and Zogby International, May 2004
  5. Global Index of Religiosity and Atheism. WIN/Gallup International, 2012. http://www.wingia.com/web/files/news/14/file/14.pdf
  6. Qassem, Abdul Aziz: “Fighting atheist tendencies.” English translation from al-Watan newspaper, re-published in English by the Saudi Gazette, 20 February 2014. http://www.saudigazette.com.sa/index.cfm?method=home.regcon&contentid=20140221196390
  7. “Saudi Arabia: New Terrorism Regulations Assault Rights.” Human Rights Watch, 20 March 2013. https://www.hrw.org/news/2014/03/20/saudi-arabia-new-terrorism-regulations-assault-rights
  8. Basic Law, 1992. http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/sa00000_.html
  9. “Containing atheism.” Saudi Gazette, 12 April 2014. http://www.saudigazette.com.sa/index.cfm?method=home.regcon&contentid=20140412201628
  10. Baras, Abdurahman: “Academics warn against adverse impact of e-games on children.” Okaz/Saudi Gazette, 6 December 2013.
  11. Muayyad, Shams al-: “The absence of role models.” Al-Madinah, republished in English by the Saudi Gazette, 7 May 2014. http://www.saudigazette.com.sa/index.cfm?method=home.regcon&contentid=20140507204324
  12. Author’s interview, May 2014. Omar Hadi is a pseudonym.
  13. Al-Hayat (in Arabic), 6 May 2014. http://alhayat.com/Articles/2171453
  14. “Driving affects ovaries and pelvis, Saudi sheikh warns women.” Al-Arabiya, 28 September 2013. http://english.alarabiya.net/en/variety/2013/09/28/Driving-affects-ovary-and-pelvis-Saudi-sheikh-warns-women.html
  15. Whitaker, Brian: “Subverting Saudi Arabia through song.” Blog post, 31 October 2013. http://www.al-bab.com/blog/2013/october/subverting-saudi-arabia-through-song.htm
  16. Qassem, Abdul Aziz: “Fighting atheist tendencies.” Al-Watan newspaper; republished in English by the Saudi Gazette, 20 February 2014. http://www.saudigazette.com.sa/index.cfm?method=home.regcon&contentid=20140221196390
  17. Bashraheel, Laura: “Scholarship students: Big dreams, slow change.” Saudi Gazette, 11 March 2013. http://www.saudigazette.com.sa/index.cfm?method=home.regcon&contentid=20130311156300
  18. Author’s email correspondence with Kabli, October 2013.
  19. “Fatwa prohibiting travelling abroad causes controversy in Saudi Arabia.” Al-Arabiya, 6 May 2014. http://english.alarabiya.net/en/perspective/features/2014/05/06/Fatwa-prohibiting-traveling-abroad-causes-controversy-in-Saudi-Arabia-.html
  20. Banna, Hassan al-: “Between Yesterday and Today”. http://m.www.islamicbulletin.org/free_downloads/resources/between_yesterday_and_today.pdf
  21. Shaffer, Brenda (ed): The Limits of Culture: Islam and Foreign Policy. Cambridge, Massachusetts, MIT Press, 2006, p 63
  22. Sarami, Nasser al-: “Saudi Arabia: A wave of atheism or a misunderstanding.” Al-Arabiya, 23 May 2012. http://english.alarabiya.net/views/2012/05/23/215974.html
  23. For more about Islam and the early years of the internet see: Bunt, Gary: Virtually Islamic. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2000.
  24. Qassemi, Sultan Sooud al-: “Gulf atheism in the age of social media.” Al-Monitor, 3 March 2014. http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2014/03/gulf-atheism-uae-islam-religion.html. Ben Kerishan’s Land of Sands blog is archived at http://thelandofsands.blogspot.co.uk/
  25. Bauer, William: “Interview with a Saudi atheist.” Your Middle East, 30 April 2013. http://www.yourmiddleeast.com/columns/article/interview-with-a-saudi-atheist_11146
  26. Jebreili, Kamran: “Arab atheists inch out of shadows despite persecution in Mideast.” Associated Press, 3 August 2013. http://www.dallasnews.com/news/local-news/20130803-arab-atheists-inch-out-of-shadows-despite-persecution-in-mideast.ece
  27. “Ex-Muslim atheists are becoming more outspoken, but tolerance is still rare.” The Economist, 24 November, 2012. http://www.economist.com/news/international/21567059-ex-muslim-atheists-are-becoming-more-outspoken-tolerance-still-rare-no-god-not
  28. Alyasery, Mazin and Hussein, Gehad: “Online war on Atheism in the Arab world.” Your Middle East, 29 April 2013. http://www.yourmiddleeast.com/opinion/elyasery-and-hussein-online-war-on-atheism-in-the-arab-world_13938
  29. http://www.il7ad.com/
  30. https://www.youtube.com/user/ArabAtheistBroadcast/
  31. https://www.youtube.com/user/fiberoty
  32. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JomoCGa36Aw&feature=youtu.be
  33. “Jordanian poet prepares for jail.” The National, 2 September 2009. http://www.thenational.ae/news/world/middle-east/jordanian-poet-prepares-for-jail
  34. Author’s interview and email exchange with Mohammed al-Khadra, September 2014.
  35. https://www.facebook.com/ArabAtheistsLibrary
  36. The translated verse says: “Is it the goal of religion that you should pluck out your beards, O community whose ignorance is a laughing-stock to other nations?” See: Arberry, A J: Poems of Mutanabbi. London: Cambridge University Press, 1967. p116

Chapter Two:

  1. Stroumsa, Sarah: Freethinkers of Medieval Islam. Leiden, Brill: 1999 
  2. Quoted by Samuli Schielke, “The Islamic World”, chapter in The Oxford Handbook of Atheism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013
  3. Stroumsa, op cit, pp 95-96
  4. Nicholson, R A: A Literary History of the Arabs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985. p 324.
  5. Nicholson: op cit, p 314.
  6. Nicholson: op cit, p 319.
  7. Nicholson: op cit, pp 323-324.
  8. Hitchens, Christopher: The Portable Atheist: Essential Readings for the Non-Believer. Philadelphia: Da Capo Press, 2007. p7.
  9. Dashti, Ali: In Search of Omar Khayyam. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2011. p14. Dashti was an Iranian rationalist, journalist and senator who died in 1982. His book was originally published in Persian.
  10. Letsch, Constanze “Turkish composer and pianist convicted of blasphemy on Twitter.” The Guardian, 16 April 2013. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/apr/15/turkish-composer-fazil-say-convicted-blasphemhy
  11. Schielke, op cit
  12. Garnett, Joy: “Edham the atheist.” http://newsgrist.typepad.com/joygarnett/2013/11/edham-the-atheist.html
  13. Juynboll, G H A: “Ismail Ahmad Adham (1911-1940), the Atheist.” Journal of Arabic Literature. 3: 1972, pp 54-71. Cited by Garnett, op. cit.
  14. “Abdul-Rahman Badawi.” Philosophers of the Arabs website, undated. http://www.arabphilosophers.com/English/philosophers/modern/modernnames/eAbdul_Rahman_Badawi.htm
  15. Qassemi, Sultan Sooud al-: “Gulf atheism in the age of social media”. Al-Monitor, 3 March 2014. http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2014/03/gulf-atheism-uae-islam-religion.html
  16. http://forums.islamicawakening.com/f17/abdullah-al-qasimi-64655/
  17. Hourani, Albert: A History of the Arab Peoples. London: Faber and Faber, 1991. p 306
  18. Hourani, op cit, p 306.
  19. Hourani, op cit, p 307.
  20. Hourani, op cit, pp 243-244.
  21. Barakat, Halim: The Arab World: Society, Culture and State. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1993, p 249
  22. The Philosophers of the Arabs website describes some of them and outlines their views. http://www.arabphilosophers.com/English/philosophers/modern/modern.htm
  23. Email correspondence with the author, July 2014.
  24. Schielke, op cit
  25. Quoted by Norman Cigar: “Islam and the state in South Yemen: the uneasy coexistence.” Middle Eastern Studies, Volume 26, Issue 2, 1990
  26. Quoted by Cigar, op cit
  27. Somalia, on the Horn of Africa but technically an Arab country since it joined the Arab League in 1974, also had a period of Marxist rule which attempted to blend scientific socialism with Islamic tenets
  28. Cigar, op cit
  29. Manea, Elham The Arab State and Women’s Rights. New York: Routledge, 2011
  30. Barakat, op cit, p 258
  31. Barakat, op cit, p 257
  32. Mutaqqun Online: ‘Male hijab according to Qur’an and Sunnah’. http://www.muttaqun.com/malehijab.html.
  33. “Al-Qa’eda in Iraq alienated by cucumber laws and brutality.” Daily Telegraph, 11 Aug 2008. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/iraq/2538545/Al-Qaeda-in-Iraq-alienated-by-cucumber-laws-and-brutality.html. Impositions such as this were said to be a major reason for al-Qa’ida’s declining support among Iraqi Sunnis.
  34. Author’s email correspondence with Ghassan Abdullah, April 2014.
  35. Mudhoon, Loay: “In the Footsteps of Averroes.” Qantara website, 2009. http://en.qantara.de/content/the-reformist-islamic-thinker-muhammad-shahrur-in-the-footsteps-of-averroes. See also Muhammad Sharour: “The Divine Text and Pluralism in Muslim Societies.” Chapter in Mehran Kamrava (ed): The New Voices of Islam. University of California Press, 2007.
  36. Shahrour, Muhammad: “A New Approach.” Undated article on Deen Research Center website. http://www.deenresearchcenter.com/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=ZYQFChaoOxY%3D&tabid=97&mid=706
  37. Deen Research Center. http://www.deenresearchcenter.com/Home/tabid/36/Default.aspx
  38. Deen Research Center. http://www.deenresearchcenter.com/DRC/AboutDRC/tabid/54/Default.aspx
  39. Author’s interview, April 2014. Gamal is a pseudonym.
  40. Author’s interview, April 2014.
  41. Author’s interview, April 2014. Ahmad Saeed is a pseudonym
  42. “L’islam peut-il être réformé?” Poste de Veille website, 12 March 2013. http://www.postedeveille.ca/2013/03/l-islam-peut-il-etre-reforme-kacem-ghazzali.html. The interview was originally published in German by Die Zeit.

Chapter Three

  1. “Isra and Miraj: The Miraculous Night Journey.” https://www.islamicity.com/articles/Articles.asp?ref=IC0608-3086
  2. Munajid, Muhammad Salih al-: “Evidence for the truth of the Prophethood of Muhammad” http://islamqa.info/en/2114
  3. Institute of Islamic Information and Education: “The Authenticity of the Quran” http://www.iiie.net/index.php?q=node/46
  4. Pickthall, Marmaduke: The Meaning of the Glorious Qur’an. http://web.archive.org/web/20071114044153/http://www.al-sunnah.com/call_to_islam/quran/pickthall/
  5. “Arabs Hated The Quran.” Australian Islamist Monitor, 28 October 2008. http://www.islammonitor.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1680:arabs-hated-the-quran&catid=183&Itemid=20
  6. The True Furqan. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_True_Furqan
  7. For details of the SuraLikeIt affair, see: Bunt, Gary: Virtually Islamic. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2000, pp 125-130.
  8. Institute of Islamic Information and Education: “The Authenticity of the Quran” http://www.iiie.net/index.php?q=node/46
  9. ibid.
  10. Hoodbhoy, Pervez: Islam and Science: Religious Orthodoxy and the Battle for Rationality. London and New Jersey: Zed Books, 1991. p67.
  11. Hoodbhoy, op cit. p 68.
  12. Golden, Daniel: “Western Scholars Play Key Role In Touting 'Science' of the Quran.” Wall Street Journal, 23 January 2002. http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB1011738146332966760
  13. Dr Moore’s “The Developing Human with Islamic Additions” textbook. The Islam Papers, 1 November 2013. http://islampapers.com/2013/11/01/the-developing-human-with-islamic-additions/
  14. See, for example, Zindani’s video, “This is Truth” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YJCchGjTzGQ
  15. “United States Designates bin Laden Loyalist.” US Treasury Department, 24 February 2004. http://www.treasury.gov/press-center/press-releases/Pages/js1190.aspx
  16. Bhagavad Gita, 2:16.
  17. Hoodbhoy, op cit. pp 66-67.
  18. “Life on Earth.” http://www.quran-islam.org/main_topics/quran/science_in_quran/life_on_earth_(P1213).html
  19. “The Quran on Mountains” http://www.islam-guide.com/ch1-1-b.htm
  20. “The Miracle of Iron” http://www.islamreligion.com/articles/562/
  21. For a variety of translations of this verse, see http://www.multimediaquran.com/quran/057/057-025.htm
  22. Clothing: Qur’an 7:26; food: 10:59, 45:05, 2:57, 7:160; cattle: 39:06
  23. “Does the Qur’an contain scientific miracles?” Blog post by Hamza Andreas Tzortzis, 21 August 2013. http://www.hamzatzortzis.com/essays-articles/exploring-the-quran/does-the-quran-contain-scientific-miracles-a-new-approach/
  24. The Book of Curiosities. Chapter 1: On the mensuration of the Earth and its division into seven climes, as related by Ptolemy and others. http://cosmos.bodley.ox.ac.uk/hms/home.php
  25. “Abu Arrayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni.” http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Al-Biruni.html
  26. Quoted by Iqbal, Muzaffar: Science and Islam. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing, 2007. p. 157.
  27. Ziadat, Adel: Western Science in the Arab World: The Impact of Darwinism, 1860–1930, London: Macmillan, 1986, p. 94 Quoted in ‘Muslim Responses to Darwinism.’ Islam Herald website. Retrieved 27 November 2008. http://www.islamherald.com/asp/curious/evolution/muz/muz-part3.asp.
  28. “Academic Year Launched.” http://staff.aub.edu.lb/~webbultn/v1n1/
  29. Elshakry, Marwa: Reading Darwin in Arabic, 1860-1950. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014. pp 8-9
  30. Shanavas, T O: Evolution and/or Creation: An Islamic Perspective. Philadelphia: Xlibris Corporation, 2005. 
  31. Edis, Taner: ‘Cloning Creationism in Turkey.’ Reports of the National Center for Science Education, vol. 19 no. 6, pp. 30–35, Nov–Dec 1999.
  32. Atlas of Creation. Available online at: http://www.harunyahya.com/books/darwinism/atlas_creation/atlas_creation_01.php
  33. For example, in 2004 a group of Muslim students in biomedical sciences at the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam were reported to have uncritically copied text from “Islamic creationist” websites for an essay assignment on “Man and evolution”. See: Koning, Danielle: “Anti-evolutionism among Muslim students.” ISIM Review, Autumn 2006. http://www.isim.nl/files/Review_18/Review_18-48.pdf
  34. Author’s interview, February 2012. Mohammed Ramadan is a pseudonym.
  35. Youssef, Nour: “Last week in Egypt in TV.” Arabist blog, 17 November 2013. http://arabist.net/blog/2013/11/17/last-week-in-egypt-in-tv
  36. “Darwinism from an Islamic Perspective.” On Islam, 24 July 2012. http://www.onislam.net/english/ask-the-scholar/muslim-creed/muslim-belief/174719-darwinism-from-an-islamic-perspective.html
  37. Koning, Danielle: “Anti-evolutionism among Muslim students.” ISIM Review, Autumn 2006. http://www.isim.nl/files/Review_18/Review_18-48.pdf
  38. A video of the news report with commentary from the Arab Atheists Network can be found at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7SRE1kz3HG4. A text version of the news report, in Arabic, is here: http://www.aljazeera.net/news/pages/bda5151b-42f2-4aeb-aff3-ea0efe321b1e
  39. Zhaghloul el-Naggar’s website: http://www.elnaggarzr.com/en/
  40. Husseini, Waleed al-: “Cosmos and Islamic censorship.” Blog post, 16 March 2014. http://proud-a.blogspot.com/2014/03/Cosmos.html

Chapter Four

  1. “French Rapper Diam’s embraces Islam.” Saudi Gazette, undated. http://www.saudigazette.com.sa/index.cfm?method=home.regcon&contentID=2009101951948. The Saudi Gazette was chastised by one of its readers for saying that Diam’s had “converted”. Many Muslims believe that everyone is born with a natural faith in God, so non-Muslims who embrace Islam are considered to be returning or “reverting” to their original faith.
  2. Ghalib, Mirza: “From Islam to atheism after a stint of employment in Saudi Arabia.” http://www.nairaland.com/882035/islam-atheism-after-stint-employment
  3. Michael Martin, in his introduction to The Cambridge Companion to Atheism (Cambridge University Press, 2007) described these two types of non-belief as negative atheism and positive atheism.
  4. Kayyani, Saeed: “I felt a weight being lifted off my shoulders”. Blog post, 11 August 2013. http://www.al-bab.com/blog/2013/august/email-from-an-arab-atheist-2.htm
  5. Author’s email correspondence with Kayyani.
  6. Smith, Jesse M: “Becoming an Atheist in America: Constructing Identity and Meaning from the Rejection of Theism.” Sociology of Religion, 2011, vol 72 (2), pp 215-237.
  7. “US Religious Knowledge Survey.” Rew Research, 28 September 2010. http://www.pewforum.org/2010/09/28/u-s-religious-knowledge-survey/
  8. “How Ignorant About Religion Are Religious Americans?” Friendly Atheist blog, 27 September 2010. http://www.patheos.com/blogs/friendlyatheist/2010/09/27/how-ignorant-about-religion-are-religious-americans/
  9. Author’s interview, April 2014. Gamal is a pseudonym.
  10. The story, related by Ibn Khallikan, is quoted in Nicholson, R A: A Literary History of the Arabs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985. pp 377-378.
  11. Qassem, Abdul Aziz: “Fighting atheist tendencies.” English translation from al-Watan newspaper, re-published in English by the Saudi Gazette, 20 February. http://www.saudigazette.com.sa/index.cfm?method=home.regcon&contentid=20140221196390
  12. Author’s interview, May 2014. Sarah Way is a pseudonym
  13. Author’s interview, September 2014. Hashem al-Shamy is a pseudonym.
  14. Munajjid, Muhammad: “Atheism is a greater sin than shirk.” Islam Q & A website. http://islamqa.info/en/113901
  15. Cheruppa, Hassan: “Religion is solution for moral degradation: Scholar.” Saudi Gazette, 30 January 2014.
  16. 16. Author’s email correspondence, March 2014
  17. Qassemi, Sultan Sooud al-: “Gulf atheism in the age of social media.” Al-Monitor, 3 March 2014. http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2014/03/gulf-atheism-uae-islam-religion.html

Chapter Five:

  1. 2. Adib, Mounir: “Salafi woman turned atheist recounts her journey.” Egypt Independent, 4 November 2013. http://www.egyptindependent.com/news/salafi-woman-turned-atheist-recounts-her-journey
  2. Author’s interview, April 2014
  3. http://www.islamicity.com/quran/maududi/mau36.html
  4. Barakat: Halim: The Arab World: Society, Culture and State. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1993. pp. 100–101.
  5. Barakat: Halim: op cit, p. 117.
  6. https://www.facebook.com/GODS.FACKER/posts/437110759728752
  7. Loewenthal, Kate; MacLeod, Andrew and Cinnirella, Marco: “Are women more religious than men? Gender differences in religious activity among different religious groups in the UK.” Psychology Department, Royal Holloway, University of London, 2001. http://digirep.rhul.ac.uk/file/a4d4660e-7408-3162-7ab7-61dd4ee6ad60/3/Are_women_more_religious_than_men.pdf
  8. Brewster, Melanie: “Atheism, gender and sexuality.” Chapter in The Oxford Handbook of Athiesm. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.
  9. ibid.
  10. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor: International Religious Freedom Report for 2012. http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/irf/religiousfreedom/index.htm?year=2012&dlid=208400
  11. Tadros, Mariz: “Behind Egypt’s Deep Red Lines”. MERIP, 13 October 2010. http://www.merip.org/mero/mero101310
  12. “Sudanese woman sentenced to death for apostasy gave birth with her legs chained, her husband says.” Telegraph, 29 May 2014.
  13. “Meriam Ibrahim's brother turned her in because 'she won't repent'.” CNN, SBS, 5 June 2014. http://www.sbs.com.au/news/article/2014/06/05/meriam-ibrahims-brother-turned-her-because-she-wont-repent
  14. “Meriam Ibrahim was 'kidnapped' and I went to police before she boarded flight to America, her brother says.” Telegraph, 25 June 2014. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/sudan/10925293/Meriam-Ibrahim-was-kidnapped-and-I-went-to-police-before-she-boarded-flight-to-America-her-brother-says.html
  15. Pew Research: Religous Landscape Survey. http://religions.pewforum.org/reports#
  16. http://www.atheists.org/about-us/history
  17. Bekiempis, Victoria: “New Atheism and the Old Boys’ Club.” Bitch magazine, May 2011. http://bitchmagazine.org/article/the-unbelievers
  18. McCreight, Jen: “Where Are All The Atheist Women? Right Here.” Ms blog, 3 November, 2010. http://msmagazine.com/blog/2010/11/03/where-are-all-the-atheist-women-right-here/
  19. Author’s interview, May 2014.
  20. http://ex-muslim.org.uk/2013/12/two-day-international-conference-on-the-religious-right-secularism-and-civil-rights/
  21. http://outcampaign.org. See also: MacAskill, Ewen: “Atheists arise: Dawkins spreads the A-word among America’s unbelievers.” The Guardian, 1 October 2007. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2007/oct/01/internationaleducationnews.religion
  22. http://www3.norc.org/gss+website
  23. Self-declared atheists comprised 2.5% of heterosexual respondents and 5.6% of LGBT respondents. Agnostics comprised 4% of the heterosexual respondents are agnostics, 12% of LGBT respondents. Linneman, T and Clendenen, M: “Sexuality and the Secular”, chapter in Atheism and Secularity: Volume 1 – Issues, Concepts, and Definitions, edited by Phil Zuckerman. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2010.
  24. Singer, B and Deschamps, D: Gay and Lesbian Stats: A Pocket Guide of Facts and Figures. New York: Harper Collins, 2010.
  25. Brewster (op cit) points out that this may also happen in the opposite direction: that atheists, having freed themselves from religion, are more able to explore their sexuality.
  26. “They Want Us Exterminated.” Human Rights Watch, August 2009. http://www.hrw.org/reports/2009/08/17/they-want-us-exterminated-0
  27. Kugle, Scott Siraj al-Haqq: Homosexuality in Islam. Oxford: Oneworld, 2010.
  28. The Kaaba in Mecca is covered with a cloth known as the kiswa, which is replaced with a new one annually.
  29. Video interview with Huffington Post. http://live.huffingtonpost.com/r/archive/segment/5363d19efe3444b0130002d9
  30. Author’s interview, July 2014.
  31. Author’s email correspondence with Kayyani.

Chapter Six

  1. CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ku.html
  2. “Furore as 155 arrested for not fasting.” The National, 10 September 2009. http://www.thenational.ae/news/world/middle-east/furore-as-155-arrested-for-not-fasting
  3. Death Threats and Arrests for Facebook Ramadan Fast Break Protesters.” Morocco News Board, undated. http://www.moroccoboard.com/news/34-news-release/664-death-threats-and-arrests-for-facebook-ramadan-fast-break-protesters
  4. Author’s interview, April 2014.
  5. Guellali, Amna: “The Problem with Tunisia’s New Constitution.” Human Rights Watch, 3 February 2014. http://www.hrw.org/news/2014/02/03/problem-tunisia-s-new-constitution
  6. Whitaker, Brian: “Tunisia’s discriminatory new constitution.” Blog post, 12 December 2011. http://www.al-bab.com/blog/2011/blog1112a.htm#tunisia_discriminatory_new_constitution
  7. “In 30 countries, heads of state must belong to a certain religion.” Pew Research Center, 22 July 2014. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/07/22/in-30-countries-heads-of-state-must-belong-to-a-certain-religion/
  8. Barro, Robert and McCleary, Rachel: “Which countries have state religions?” Working Paper 10438, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA. 2004. http://www.nber.org/papers/w10438
  9. Report of the Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief, Heiner Bielefeldt. A/HRC/19/60, 22 December 2011. http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G11/175/41/PDF/G1117541.pdf?OpenElement
  10. Worren, Torstein: Fear and Resistance: The Construction of Alawi Identity in Syria. Master thesis in human geography. University of Oslo, Dept of Sociology and Human Geography, 2007. pp 49-52. https://www.duo.uio.no/bitstream/handle/10852/16035/fear_and_resistance.pdf?sequence=2
  11. Author’s interview, September 2014. Hashem al-Shamy is a pseudonym
  12. For further discussion, see: Zuckerman, Phil: “Secularization: Europe Yes, United States No.” Skeptical Inquirer, March/April 2004. http://www.skeptic.ca/secularization.htm
  13. Barro and McCleary, op cit
  14. Stark, Rodney and Finke, Roger: Acts of Faith: Explaining the Human Side of Religion. Oakland: University of California Press, 2000.
  15. Report of the Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief, Heiner Bielefeldt A/HRC/16/53. 15 December 2010. http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G10/177/93/PDF/G1017793.pdf?OpenElement
  16. ibid
  17. “Grand Mufti calls for changes to school textbooks.” Libya Herald, 18 October, 2012. http://www.libyaherald.com/2012/10/18/16414/#ixzz35YjCCGVB
  18. US State Department: “International Religious Freedom Report for 2012.” http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/irf/religiousfreedom/index.htm?year=2012&dlid=208398#wrapper
  19. US State Department: “International Religious Freedom Report for 2012.” http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/irf/religiousfreedom/index.htm?year=2012&dlid=208390#wrapper
  20. “Prohibited Identities: State Interference with Religious Freedom.” Human Rights Watch/EIPR, November 2007. http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2007/11/11/prohibited-identities.
  21. Ibid.
  22. Whitaker, Brian: “Sects and marriage in Lebanon.” Blog post, 28 January 2013. http://www.al-bab.com/blog/2013/blog1301a.htm#sects-and-marriage-in-lebanon
  23. Whitaker, Brian: “Mufti’s threats over civil marriage in Lebanon.” Blog post, 29 January 2013. http://www.al-bab.com/blog/2013/blog1301a.htm#mufti-threats-civil-marriage-lebanon
  24. “Gemayel slams Lebanon mufti over civil marriage remarks.” Daily Star, 29 January 2013. http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Politics/2013/Jan-29/204185-sleiman-defends-civil-marriage-at-cabinet-meeting.ashx

Chapter Seven:

  1. “Over 600 Chinese nationals working in Saudi embrace Islam.” Gulf News, 27 September 2009. http://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/saudi-arabia/over-600-chinese-nationals-working-in-saudi-embrace-islam-1.540965
  2. http://www.islam-guide.com/
  3. CCPR General Comment No. 22: Article 18 (Freedom of Thought, Conscience or Religion). http://www.refworld.org/docid/453883fb22.html
  4. Kristine Kalanges: “Religious Liberty in Western and Islamic Law: Toward a World Legal Tradition.” OUP USA, 2012, p 60.
  5. ibid, p61.
  6. Mayer, Ann Elizabeth: Islam and Human Rights – Tradition and Politics. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press 2007. p. 150.
  7. Mayer, Ann Elizabeth: op. cit. Mayer’s book discusses these Islamic rights schemes extensively.
  8. It was renamed in 2011 and is now known as the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
  9. Meral, Ziya: “No Place to Call Home: Experiences of Apostates from Islam, Failures of the International Community.” Christian Solidarity Worldwide, 2008. http://www.academia.edu/2462595/No_Place_to_Call_Home_Experiences_of_Apostates_from_Islam_Failures_of_the_International_Community
  10. Ramadan, Tariq: “Muslim Scholars Speak out on Jihad, Apostasy and Women”, 2007. http://pa.cair.com/files/Muslim_Scholars_Speak_Out.pdf
  11. Abdelhadi, Magdi: “What Islam says on religious freedom”. BBC, 27 March 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/4850080.stm
  12. Stalley, R F: An Introduction to Plato’s Laws. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 1983. pp 177-178
  13. Plato: Laws. Translated by Benjamin Jowett. Internet Classics Archive. http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/laws.10.x.html
  14. Locke, John: A Letter Concerning Toleration. 1689. Translated from Latin by William Popple. http://www.constitution.org/jl/tolerati.htm
  15. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor: International Religious Freedom Report for 2012. http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/irf/religiousfreedom/index.htm?year=2012#wrapper
  16. Longva, Anh Nga: “The apostasy law in the age of universal human rights and citizenship”. Fourth Nordic conference on Middle Eastern Studies, Oslo, 1998. http://www.hf.uib.no/smi/pao/longva.html
  17. Barbara Baker: “Yemen Court Sentences Somali Convert to Death”, Christianity Today, 7 July 2000. http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2000/julyweb-only/55.0.html
  18. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor: International Religious Freedom Report for 2011. http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/irf/2011/af/192763.htm
  19. “Sudanese centre says incidents of apostasy, atheism increasing in country”. Sudan Tribune, 15 May 2013. http://www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?article46577
  20. Meral, Ziya: “No Place to Call Home: Experiences of Apostates from Islam, Failures of the International Community.” Christian Solidarity Worldwide, 2008. http://www.academia.edu/2462595/No_Place_to_Call_Home_Experiences_of_Apostates_from_Islam_Failures_of_the_International_Community
  21. Sherbini, Ramadan al-: “Bahai daughter, Muslim father locked in court battle over child’s custody.” Gulf News, 9 August 2009. http://web.archive.org/web/20090815013038/http://archive.gulfnews.com/region/Egypt/10338696.html
  22. For more details see: Whitaker, Brian: What’s Really Wrong with the Middle East. London: Saqi Books, 2009, pp. 126-128.
  23. Szymanski, Tekla: “Battling Bigotry”. World Press Review (Vol. 48, No. 9), September 2001. http://www.worldpress.org/Mideast/311.cfm
  24. ANHRI press release, 1 October 2009. http://www.anhri.net/en/reports/2009/pr1001.shtml
  25. Whitaker, Brian: “The biter bit”. Blog post, 10 October 2009. http://www.al-bab.com/blog/blog0910a.htm
  26. Soage, Ana Belén: “Faraj Fawda, or the cost of freedom of expression.” Middle East Review of International Affairs, Volume 11, No. 2, June 2007. http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/2007/issue2/jv11no2a3.html

Chapter Eight:

  1. “UN resolutions on combating defamation of religions.” Statement by Article 19 and the Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies. 11 September 2008. http://www.article19.org/data/files/pdfs/press/un-resolutions-on-combating-defamation-of-religions.pdf
  2. “Freedom of expression and incitement to racial or religious hatred.” Joint statement by Githu Muigai, Asma Jahangir and Frank La Rue, 22 April 2009. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/religion/docs/SRJointstatement22April09.pdf
  3. “Rabat Plan of Action on the prohibition of advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence.” 5 October 2012. http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Opinion/SeminarRabat/Rabat_draft_outcome.pdf
  4. Ghazzali, Kacem el-: “Tunisian Atheists sentenced to seven and a half years of prison.” Atheistica blog, 1 April 2012. http://atheistica.com/2012/04/01/tunisian-atheists-sentenced-to-seven-and-a-half-years-of-prison/
  5. Ryan, Yasmine: “Tunisia’s embattled artists speak out.” Al-Jazeera, 15 June 2012. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2012/06/2012615111819112421.html
  6. “Tunisia: Draft law criminalising offending religious values is repressive and vague.” Article 19, 16 August 2012. http://www.article19.org/resources.php/resource/3420/en/tunisia:-draft-law-criminalising-offending-religious-values-is-repressive-and-vague
  7. “Egypt frees 2 Coptic boys held for Quran defiling.” The Associated Press, 4 October 2012. http://news.yahoo.com/egypt-frees-2-coptic-boys-held-quran-defiling-190054905.html

Chapter Nine

  1. Author’s interview, April 2014. Gamal is a pseudonym.
  2. Speech by President Morsi in Tahrir Square, 24 June 2012. http://www.al-bab.com/arab/docs/egypt/morsi_speech_120624.htm
  3. Beaumont, Peter: “Morsi ‘power grab’ angers Egypt opposition groups.” The Guardian, 23 November 2012. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/nov/23/morsi-power-grab-angers-opposition
  4. “Egypt’s constitutional referendum: A dubious yes.” The Economist, 22 December 2012. http://www.economist.com/news/middle-east-and-africa/21568756-flawed-constitution-will-be-endorsed-argument-far-over
  5. Whitaker, Brian: “Egyptian provinces need elected governors.” Blog post, 18 June 2013. http://www.al-bab.com/blog/2013/june/egyptian-provinces-need-elected-governors.htm
  6. Whitaker, Brian: “Artists versus Islamists in Egypt’s culture war.” Blog post, 20 June, 2013 http://www.al-bab.com/blog/2013/june/artists-versus-islamists-in-egypt-culture-war.htm
  7. “Egypt MP quits over nose job cover-up.” Al-Jazeera, 6 March 2012. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2012/03/201235224452570454.html
  8. “Egypt Salafist ex-MP convicted of public indecency.” BBC, 21 July 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-18937515
  9. Quoted by Samaan, Magdy: “Atheists Rise in Egypt.” Zam Magazine, 13 October 13. www.zammagazine.com/chronicle-3/38-atheists-rise-in-egypt
  10. Author’s interview, April 2014.
  11. Abdelhadi, Magdy: “The age of unreason.” Blog post, 16 April 2014. http://maegdi.wordpress.com/2014/04/16/the-age-of-unreason/
  12. Adib, Mounir: “Atheists call for reduced religious footprint in constitution.” Egypt Independent, 19 September 2013. http://www.egyptindependent.com/news/atheists-call-reduced-religious-footprint-constitution
  13. “Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt, 2014.” Unofficial English translation. http://www.sis.gov.eg/Newvr/Dustor-en001.pdf
  14. Allam, Rana: “A constitution not worth its ink.” Daily News Egypt, 19 February 2014. http://www.dailynewsegypt.com/2014/02/19/constitution-worth-ink/
  15. “Egypt mosques: Weekly sermon themes set by government.” BBC, 31 January 2014. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-25983912
  16. Abdelhadi, Magdy: “The age of unreason.” Blog post, 16 April 2014. http://maegdi.wordpress.com/2014/04/16/the-age-of-unreason/
  17. Al-Ahram (in Arabic), 18 June 2014. http://gate.ahram.org.eg/UI/Front/Inner.aspx?NewsContentID=506013
  18. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rVPdVS-eImE. 20 December 2013.
  19. “Police vow to arrest Alexandria-based atheists.” Mada Masr, 26 March 2014. http://madamasr.com/content/police-vow-arrest-alexandria-based-atheists
  20. Author’s interview, April 2014.
  21. http://www.masress.com/en/video/3063055 and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OOF375-NZhc, 10 November 2013
  22. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oESeyFgtpbE&list=PLx2EFu656F-ErXUFQaZ6ywgMFFm2zB__r, 15 April 2014.
  23. Elwatannews, 13 May 2014, https://www.elwatannews.com/news/details/480971 and Sout al-Umma, 13 May 2014, http://www.soutalomma.com/articles/72748 (both reports in Arabic).
  24. Kheir, Mohammed: “Egyptian TV: Darwin, Nietzsche, and a Certain God.” Al-Akhbar, 1 August 2012. http://english.al-akhbar.com/content/egyptian-tv-darwin-nietzsche-and-certain-god. See also: Kazim, Butheina: “In the company of Moez Masoud.” Al-Jazeera, 17 August 2012. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2012/08/201281694821594437.html
  25. Montasser, Farah: “Al-Molhid (The Atheist) Egyptian film praises Islam, says film crew.” Ahram Online, 25 November 2012. http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/5/32/59125/Arts--Culture/Film/AlMolhid-The-Atheist-Egyptian-film-praises-Islam,-.aspx
  26. Controversial Egyptian film ‘The Atheist’ gets go ahead by censors.” Al-Arabiya 14 March 2012. http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2012/03/14/200689.html
  27. Al-Arabiya in Arabic, 3 February 2014. http://www.alarabiya.net/ar/culture-and-art/2014/02/03/%D8%AF%D9%88%D8%B1-%D8%B9%D8%B1%D8%B6-%D9%85%D8%B5%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D8%AA%D8%B1%D9%81%D8%B6-%D8%A7%D8%B3%D8%AA%D9%82%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%84-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D9%84%D8%AD%D8%AF-.html
  28. “Controversial Egyptian film ‘The Atheist’ gets go ahead by censors.” Al-Arabiya 14 March 2012. http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2012/03/14/200689.html
  29. Shams El-Din, Mai: “Rights groups condemn detention of atheist on blasphemy charges.” Egypt Independent, 24 September 2012. http://www.egyptindependent.com/news/rights-groups-condemn-detention-atheist-blasphemy-charges
  30. Adib, Mounir: “While atheism in Egypt rises, backlash ensues.” Egypt Independent, 30 September 2013. http://www.egyptindependent.com/news/while-atheism-egypt-rises-backlash-ensues
  31. Dawakhly, Sherif al-: “New book at Cairo’s book fair tackles atheism.” Egypt Independent, 25 January 2014. http://www.egyptindependent.com/news/new-book-cairo-s-book-fair-tackles-atheism
  32. Allam, Rana: “A generation of atheists.” Daily News Egypt, 7 January 2013. http://www.dailynewsegypt.com/2013/01/07/a-generation-of-atheists/
  33. Abdelfattah, Mohamed: “Leaving Islam in the age of Islamism.” Daily News Egypt, 24 January 2013. http://www.dailynewsegypt.com/2013/01/24/leaving-islam-in-the-age-of-islamism/
  34. Diab, Khaled: “Confessions of an Egyptian infidel.” Daily News Egypt, 15 August 2013. http://www.dailynewsegypt.com/2013/08/15/confessions-of-an-egyptian-infidel/
  35. Author’s email correspondence, March 2014.

Chapter Ten:

  1. Enemies Not Allies: the Far Right. One Law For All, 2011. http://www.onelawforall.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/Enemies-not-Allies-web-version1.pdf
  2. “A statement regarding Nick Griffin's use of the term 'Fenian' from his MEP Constituency Office.” 18 October 2012. http://www.nickgriffinmep.eu/content/statement-regarding-nick-griffins-use-term-fenian-his-mep-constituency-office
  3. “Easter Message from BNP Chairman hits mark!” Stormfront, July 2006. http://www.stormfront.org/forum/t696276/
  4. Spencer, Robert: “2 Men, in New York and Florida, Charged in Qaeda Conspiracy.” Jihad Watch, 30 May 2005. http://www.jihadwatch.org/2005/05/2-men-in-new-york-and-florida-charged-in-qaeda-conspiracy.html
  5. Siding With the Oppressor: The Pro-Islamist Left. One Law For All, 2013. http://www.onelawforall.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/SidingWithOpressor_Web.pdf
  6. Author’s interview, May 2014.
  7. No Bigotry and No Apologism.” http://www.exmna.org/about-us/
  8. For more information about the history of the term “Islamophobia”, see: Richardson, Robin: “Islamophobia or anti-Muslim racism – or what? – concepts and terms revisited.” 2012 http://www.insted.co.uk/anti-muslim-racism.pdf
  9. Islamophobia: a challenge for us all. Runnymede Trust, 1997. http://www.runnymedetrust.org/publications/17/32.html
  10. Berlinski, Claire: “Moderate Muslim watch: How the term ‘Islamophobia’ got shoved down your throat.” Ricochet, 24 November 2010. http://ricochet.com/archives/moderate-muslim-watch-how-the-term-islamophobia-got-shoved-down-your-throat
  11. Richardson, Robin: op cit
  12. “Racism and Islamophobia.” FAIR website, undated. http://www.fairuk.org/docs/Islamophobia%20&%20Racism.pdf
  13. “BNP leader said Islam was ‘wicked’.” Daily Mail, 3 November 2006. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-414343/BNP-leader-said-Islam-wicked.html
  14. Wainwright, Martin: “Islam is vicious, wicked faith, claims Griffin.” The Guardian, 26 January 2006. http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2006/jan/26/otherparties.thefarright
  15. “Islamophobia? Muslimophobia? Anti-Muslim Bigotry? A discussion between Ex-Muslims on appropriate neologisms.” Hiba Krisht was using the name “Marwa” at the time of the blog post. http://aveilandadarkplace.com/2014/05/21/islamophobia-muslimophobia-anti-muslim-bigotry-a-discussion-between-ex-muslims-on-appropriate-neologisms/
  16. “Islamophobia? Muslimophobia? Anti-Muslim Bigotry? A discussion between Ex-Muslims on appropriate neologisms.” http://aveilandadarkplace.com/2014/05/21/islamophobia-muslimophobia-anti-muslim-bigotry-a-discussion-between-ex-muslims-on-appropriate-neologisms/
  17. https://twitter.com/RichardDawkins/status/365473573768400896
  18. Whitaker, Brian: “The right answer or the wrong question?” The Guardian, 27 March 2004. http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2004/mar/27/religion.world
  19. https://twitter.com/mjrobbins/status/327004128171679745
  20. http://old.richarddawkins.net/articles/596422-jedi-ism-britain-s-fourth-largest-religion-is-still-going-strong/comments?page=1#comment_596425
  21. http://old.richarddawkins.net/articles/4563-human-rights-ruling-against-classroom-crucifixes-angers-italy/comments?page=1#comment_411188
  22. http://old.richarddawkins.net/videos/476560-pat-condell-no-mosque-at-ground-zero/comments?page=2
  23. http://old.richarddawkins.net/articles/641974-islam-and-islamophobia-a-little-manifesto/comments?page=1#comment_845164
  24. Lean, Nathan: “Dawkins, Harris, Hitchens: New Atheists flirt with Islamophobia.” Salon 30 March 2013. http://www.salon.com/2013/03/30/dawkins_harris_hitchens_new_atheists_flirt_with_islamophobia/
  25. Harris, Sam: “Head-in-the-Sand Liberals.” Los Angeles Times, 18 September, 2006. http://www.samharris.org/site/full_text/the-end-of-liberalism/
  26. Blackford, Russell: “Islam and ‘Islamophobia’ – a little manifesto.” The Hellfire Club blog, 30 June, 2011. http://metamagician3000.blogspot.co.uk/2011/06/islam-and-islamophobia-little-manifesto.html
  27. Author’s interview and email exchange, July 2014.
  28. European Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission): “Report on the relationship between freedom of expression and freedom of religion” CDL-AD(2008)026. http://www.venice.coe.int/webforms/documents/default.aspx?pdffile=CDL-AD(2008)026-e
  29. European Court of Human Rights, Gündüz v Turkey, 2003.
  30. Gey, Steven: “Atheism and the Freedom of Religion.” Chapter in The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.