The Document of Pledge and Accord, 1994

Note: This translation, originally published in the Yemen Times, is the only version currently available in English. Although it generally reflects the content of the document, there are some ambiguities and inaccuracies. Anyone intending to quote the document is advised to check the Arabic original.

The Document of Pledge and Accord  

Issued by the Political Forces Dialogue Committee, 
18 January, 1994

Quote: Praised be the Lord who said, "Join hands together all of you around the truth of God and do not go separate ways."

During the period from 1/6/1414 till 7/8/1414 H (equivalent to 23/11/93 till 18/l/1994), the Dialogue Committee of the Political Forces held steady and continued meetings in Sanaa and Aden in a national and sincere effort to contain the crisis which the nation has witnessed, and to arrive at real outlets for the unification procession which started on 22/5/1990, and to promote the process of consolidation of unity, democracy, stability, and construction of a state based on law and order and institutions.

The efforts of the Dialogue Committee came at a time when the crisis reached such levels that could not be neglected. So the people of Yemen joined hands in put a decisive end to the crisis and its destructive fall-out which would have impacted the unity, cohesion, and all the achievements of the people made over a long and arduous struggle in which the martyrs gave their lives and blood.

Yemen appeared to the world as if about to fall in a deep chasm because of the situation of lack of trust due to the mistakes, excesses, and dangerous overlapping of responsibilities and duties, lack of commitment to the laws and constitution all of which accumulated over time leading to a major deterioration in the security and economic conditions which have negatively affected our people in a sad way.

Based on sincere and hard efforts to put in place the steps and foundations for bringing back stability and security in the beloved Yemeni homeland, to avoid a repetition of what has happened to safeguard the unity, to expand the popular participation in decision-making and implementation, and to establish a true democracy which starts from the smallest villages and risings to the summit of the state to create a strong nation which protects and does not threaten. a state which preserves and does not waste..

This document was reached by the Dialogue Committee which represents the correct starting point and appropriate venue to build a modern Yemen a unified and free Yemen. And to prove one more time the wisdom of the Yemenis who make the brain and logic reign over everything else.

By announcing this document to the Yemeni people, all the political forces signing it adhere by it and shall continue efforts in implementation as stipulated hereunder.

This important document contains the following important issues discussed by the Dialogue Committee:

Part 1: A. Regarding the Persons Accused of Disturbing the Security of the Nation

1. To take the decisive measures to arrest the persons accused of disturbing the security of the nation by being involved in assassinations and assassination attempts, highway robbery, and other such violations; and to initiate their immediate trials which should be fair and open to ensure A just trial for the accused and a swift punishment accordingly.

2. The Dialogue Committee reaffirms the statement of the government regarding the steps specially taken to confront terrorism, and to abide the policy of Yemen internally and externally in confronting terrorism. and to extradite all non-Yemenis against whom there is evidence of involvement in terroristic activities, support thereof or even encouragement or publicizing them.

Appropriate trials open and fair must be initiated and proper punishment dispensed accordingly to the law and through the appropriate channels.

To forbid the entry into Yemen, employment of, or giving shelter or refuge to persons accused of terrorism.

3. The Dialogue committee declares its opposition to any procrastination of softening in applying the law against persons involved in terrorism or sabotage.

4. Any party which gives refuge or safe haven to any person wanted by the law or who fled from jail will be considered as law-breaker against whom all the legal measures may be taken according to the law.

5. To put into effect a plan to arrest whether through the Interpol or diplomatic channels for non-Yemenis or for Yemenis outside the country those persons fleeing from the law.

6. Prompt completion of all investigations of persons arrested for crimes of terrorism and sabotage, and to entrust the investigation and interrogation to specialized, qualified and non-partisan persons, and their files have to be passed on to the prosecutor-general's office promptly.

7. The Dialogue Committee stresses the need to issue guidelines for carrying firearms, and to revise the current law on firearms to make it more firm in carrying. prevalence and trade in firearms.

8. Steps shall be taken to verify whether there are military camps and training grounds (in Yemen) for violence, and to take appropriate measures towards them.

9. The implementation plan should not exceed three months.

10. All procedures stipulated above are to be carried out according to the laws and justice.


1. The Ministry of Interior shall present, within one week, to the Council of Ministers for approval, a plan for the arrest of the criminals who are wanted by the law or those who have fled the prisons, or those who have helped them. The Ministry of Interior may obtain firepower and/or personnel from the Ministry of Defence to be under the command of the Minister of Interior.

2. The Minister of Interior and Justice shall present to the Prime Minister for approval a list of the persons to engage in the investigations and interrogations.

3. All trials shall be carried out in the area of jurisdiction of the crime, and the prosecutor-general shall look for connections among the various crimes. The prosecutor-general's office and representatives in the governorates shall present the cases to the courts promptly.

4. The Minister of Interior and Justice shall present a fortnightly (bi-weekly) report to the Council of Ministers on the progress of the cases, and stiff action shall be taken against any procrastination.

B. Regarding the Security and Military

1. To remove all the checkpoints inside the cities or outside of them whether they are part of the Ministry of Interior or Defence or joint.

2. The Ministry of Interior shall determine the locations of check-points to be erected for security reasons, and to cooperate with the Ministry of Interior to determine the joint military/securitv checkpoints. A committee for this purpose shall be named by the Council of Ministers within two weeks. which will be responsible for presenting the cabinet a proposal according to which a cabinet resolution shall be issued specifying:

a) the checkpoints under the control of the Ministry of Interior,

b) The checkpoints under the control of the Ministry of Defence.

c) The checkpoints under joint control.

3. A comprehensive reconciliation among the tribes is to be concluded in order to terminate actions of vengeance, and according to which any person taking revenge will be deemed outside of the law. and who will be pursued by the organisations of the state. The state shall finance the resolution of any pending cases of revenge settled by the said reconciliation, as follows:

a) The state shall call for a comprehensive reconciliation in a national conference in which all the political and social forces and the ulema shall participate and to be signed by all.

b) The conference shall name a committee which will list all pending cases until the date of the announcement.

c) The reconciliation shall be concluded within one month, and shall run into effect upon announcement, and any person to personally avenge himself is outside the law and subject to legal action.

d) To preserve the standing and prestige of the armed forces, and to protect their long struggle for the nation, the military forces which are based in what were border governorates (Taiz, Lahej, Ibb, Abyan. Shabwah, Al-Baidha, Marib) shall be withdrawn from these governorates and redistributed in other places as dictated by the strategic defence requirements of the nation. A technical military committee shall determine the new redistribution locations, and the Ministry of Defence shall execute the same.

A resolution shall be issued in this regard within one week, and implementation shall be immediate.

5. It is forbidden to have military patrols on the city streets or in highways. A police force shall take up this duty as called for by security requirements.

6. An intelligence organization shall be set up according to a (new) law that will specify its responsibilities and duties and role in protecting the sovereignty of the nation. A committee from the government and Dialogue Committee shall draft the law proposal to be presented to the Council of Ministers within one month.

7. The search for a means to end the military hardware outside the official system, and to forbid the distribution of arms to citizens under whatever pretext. which must be seen as a crime against the security of the nation.

8. The merger of all security forces, including the Central Security, under the control of the Ministry of Interior. No financial allocations shall be made outside the formal channels of the Ministry of Interior.

The Council of Ministers shall set up a committee for this purpose within 2 weeks.

9. All armed forces shall be evacuated from the cities within two months as part of a unified. central plan to be presented by the Ministry of Defence, to be approved by the cabinet, and to be ratified by the presidential council as a step towards merging and re-orgnizing them within four months.

The end result of this process shall be the emergence of a national and modern army, well aware of the democratic commitment of the nation, and void of any sectarian, regional, familial or tribal influence.

Implementation shall begin immediately upon the signing of this document.

10. To stop movement of any military hardware or personnel, or reinforcements, to freeze any training, or mobilization programs, until the conditions are stabilized, and according to a decision by the cabinet and ratified by the presidential council.

Such decision shall then be communicated to the Ministry of Defence and the Military Committee shall be responsible for the follow it up of the same.

11. The role of the Military Police is limited to the security and lawful behaviour of the military units, and it shall cease to carry out any patrolling or other activities which conflict with the role of the general security forces.

12. It is forbidden to undertake any action that indicates different treatment of military personnel.

13. The soldiers and officers of the armed forces are forbidden from interfering in civilian affairs, or doing anything that interferes with the work of the local authorities or judicial and executives bodies.

14. To terminate all recruitment or mobilization or arming of new units, militias.

border patrols. popular guards or any carrying such names, and all that has been introduced shall be terminated.

15. The Ministries of Defence and Interior shall undertake to ensure supplies and provisions through their own special organizations.

16. All illegal promotions that were made since the beginning of 1993 shall be cancelled.

Implementation: A committee from the Council of Ministers and certain military and political personalities shall be established to implement the above, and to set out a timetable for their work to be approved by the cabinet.

C: Regarding Specifying Powers and Authorities

1. To reflect the constitution, the laws and regulations in execution of the duties of the presidential council, its chairman, vice chairman, and to revise the duties and functions of the office of the presidential council accordingly.

2. It is forbidden to spend from the treasury resources except as stipulated in the government budget both in the current and development expenditures as approved by the House of Representatives.

The power of expenditure of the senior officials is to be specified.

3. It is forbidden to refuse or delay of payment of amounts stipulated in the budget, or to divert their expenditures by any authority not responsible for the same according to the law.

4. Not to interfere in the work of the Ministry of Civil Service or Military Personnel and not to issue instructions contrary to the laws and which create confusion because they differentiate among the people in their rights to employment and promotion.

5. To enact a law that specifies the salaries of the chairman of the presidential council, vice chairman, members of the council, prime ministries, his deputies. the ministers and vice ministers as stipulated in the constitution.

Implementation: A total and immediate commitment from all sides not to order payment or to interfere in the affairs of the state apparatus.

The Council of Ministers a committee to prepare drafts of laws and regulations within two months.

Part II: Foundations for Building a Modern State

The main task ahead is to build and reform the distortions developed over the recent past, as the period since the 22nd May 1990 proves that the way in which the affairs of the state was managed represented an obstacle in the merger of the two former systems and in building a unified state.

Therefore, the Dialogue Committee has sought to get the nation out of the crisis atmosphere to the serious and democratic atmosphere which will achieve stability, balanced economic and social development which will deepen national unity.

On this basis, the document focussed on the foundations and general principles which define the central and local authorities and to specify their authorities and duties in a way that will avoid overlap and confusion and possibly crisis.

1. The Foundations and General Principles

The following foundations and general principles will be the building blocks for the state and its institutions to create a stable system based on law and order with full guarantees of a modern Yemen founded on:

a) Islam as a faith and sharia.

b) The people are owners and source of all powers and exercises them directly through referendums and elections, and exercises them indirectly through the legislative, executive and judicial authorities and through the local elected councils.

c) The Republic of Yemen is an Arab and Islamic state and Arabic is its official language.

d) Unified Yemen and Republican Yemen.

e) National unity is the base to protect to protect Yemeni unity.

f) Democracy, peaceful transfer of power, political and part), pluralism.

g) Financial and Administrative decentralization is one of the basis of government h) Protection of the general liberties.

i) Respect for human rights.

j) Liberty of unionization and freedom of forming professional, intellectual and cultural associations.

k) Encouraging scientific research in all aspects of life.

2. State Institutions

Building the institutions of the central and local authorities, by enacting the proper laws and regulations is a major undertaking. The Dialogue Committee has determined the need for correcting the democratic process of our unity state based on local government.

2.1. Institutions of the Central Authority

1. The House of Representatives is the legislative body of the Republic of Yemen. It is elected directly by the people in free and secret balloting.

The constitution determines its duties, powers. duration conditions for membership, and methods of contesting and electing.

2. The Senate/Upper House (Majlis Al-Shoura) is formed by an equal number of members representing the units of local administration. These are elected by the councils of the regions.

The constitution determines the number of members from each administrative unit, membership conditions, methods of contesting, and elections, duties and powers according to the following:

a) To comments on the drafts of basic laws, especially those related to local government which are referred by the Presidential Council prior to their enactment and after the House of Representatives' approval.

b) Participates with the House of Representatives in electing the Presidential Council.

c) To give comments on the proposals of the government budget and socioeconomic development plans which are referred to it by the government prior to sending them for approval to the House of Representatives.

d) Elects the members of the Supreme Court on whose appointment a presidential decree is issued. The Majlis is presented with a list with double the number of members of the Supreme Court from among whom it chooses.

e) Elects the member of the Information Council and the Council of the General Authority for Civil Service.

The government sends the list of candidates.

f) Looks into the issues on local government referred to it by the government or any of' the units of local government.

g) Provides opinion on agreements and border issues referred to it by the government prior to their presentation to the House of Representatives.

h) Any issues referred to it by the government.

3. Head of State

The sovereign head of state is represented by the presidential council which is made up of five members elected by the House of Representatives and Majlis Al-Shoura combined, and the council then elects its chairman and vice chairman from among its members.

The term of membership in the presidential council cannot exceed two electoral terms.

It is forbidden for the members of the presidential council to engage in any partisan politics during their term. This condition does not apply to this council in this term.

The constitution specifies the authorities and duties of the presidential council as under:

a) To represent the Republic inside and outside.

b) To call for elections at the scheduled time for elections.

c) To dissolve the House of Parliament following consultation with the Council of Ministers as called for in the relevant article in the current constitution.

d) To call for a general referendum.

e) To nominate a person to form the government, and to issue a presidential decree naming the cabinet members who were chosen by the person nominated to form the government.

f) To participate with the government in discussing its program before presenting the same to the House of Representatives for the vote of confidence.

g) To receive periodic reports from the prime minister h) Consulting with the prime minister in naming the members of the Defence Council who are nominated by the cabinet, according to the law.

i) To issue the laws approved by the House of Representatives.

j) The right to ask for a review of the laws approved by the House of Representative.

k) To sign the appointment, promotion and dismissal orders of senior military and security officers of the rank of colonel or 'higher based on the approval of the cabinet.

l) To ratify the decisions of the cabinet to 'introduce new military ranks award citations and honours specified by the law.

m) To grant approval to wear citations and honours awarded by other countries.

n) When the House of Representatives is in recess, to issue presidential laws based on the proposal of the cabinet on exceptional cases which cannot be delayed and do not contradict the constitution. These have to be presented to the House of Representative in its first meeting following the recess.

o) To ratify (enact) the laws approved by the House of Representatives.

p) To ratify the agreements approved by the House of Representatives.

q) To establish diplomatic relations and to name/recall ambassadors based on the approval of the cabinet.

r) To accredit the representatives of other countries and organizations.

s) To grant political asylum.

t) To declare emergency situations and general mobilization according to the law.

Duties and Powers of the Chairman: Based on the duties and powers of the Presidential Council. its chairman exercises the following:

To chair the meetings of the Council.

To represent the nation abroad

To sign the documents accrediting ambassadors and receives them.

To sign the laws.

To sign the decisions of the Presidential Council.

To request reports from the Prime Minister to present them to the Presidential Council on the issues which the government executes.

To sign the presidential decrees and presidential laws along with the prime minister.

To chair the National Defence Council when the nation is at war.

Duties and Powers of the Vice Chairman:

To assist the chairman in his duties, especially as related to the following: Perform the functions of the chairman if he is absent on a visit abroad or due to a serious sickness which forces him to stay in bed.

To request reports from the prime minister to present them to the Presidential Council in the issues related to local government.

Serves as Vice Chairman of the National Defence Council when the nation is at war.

Duties and Powers of the Members of the Presidential Council: To participate in the functions of the Council.

They assist the chairman and vice chairman in their duties as called for in the bylaws which regulate the affairs of the Presidential Council.

4. The Government

The Council of Ministers (cabinet) is the government of the Republic of Yemen, And it is the most supreme executive and administrative body of the state. and all executive state apparatus, administrations, organization, follow it without exception.

The government, on the basis of a decentral financial and administrative system, is responsible for foreign affairs, armed and security matters, the currency, sovereign revenues, fiscal, and monetary policies, plans for economic, social, and cultural development. and to propose drafts and laws and to supervise their implementation.

The government is totally and collectively responsible in front of the House of Representatives.

The Judicial Authority: The Judicial Authority is made up of the Supreme Court of the Republic. the court system as specified in the law, and the office of the general prosecution. The Judicial Authority enjoys full independence.

The members of the Supreme Court are elected by Al-Shoura Council for life or until he (she?) is incapable of performing the duties, or desecrates the honour of the profession in which case he is dismissed and is not allowed to serve in the justice system elected from among the qualified judges, and lawyers especially those versed in the sharia and the laws.

The constitution specifies the duties and authorities, and the methods for electing and dismissing the members of the Supreme Court.

2-2: Local Government: The local government which is to be set up is based on administrative and financial decentralization in a unified state, and on the broad-based popular participation in government and on the principle of democracy that strengthens national unity in which all citizens exercise their constitutional rights and duties in a way that would allow them to compete positively in building the unified state of Yemen by enriching its administrative, economic, and social units, and by upholding justice, sovereignty, security, stability and progress.

2-2-1: Administrative Divisions: Local Administration is to be based on new administrative units which by-pass the current divisions. and in a way that will fully unify the country and will remove the signs of the partition days and re-affirm the new Yemen.

The new divisions shall be scientifically based, and will take the factors of population, geography, economic and social conditions, services, etc., into account, all of which will serve as a (strong) base for a balanced development for Yemen.

On this basis, the republic shall be divided into regions to be known as "makhaleef." Sanaa. the political capital, and Aden, the economic and commercial capital, represent independent administrative units (general secretariats) as full legal, financial and administrative entities which have their own elected councils according to a law that will provide the guidelines for the same.

The status of Aden as a free zone shall be taken into consideration.

2-2-2: Authorities of Local Government: Local Government is based on direct and equal elections based on which Local Councils are established.

These Council enjoy full financial and administrative powers in managing the affairs of their geographic units and to compete positively to serve and construct.

The centre of authority shall shift in a number of issues in managing the affairs of these regions from the centre to the Local Authorities, which are responsible for:

1. Administrative Affairs: The local authorities are responsible in a full way for managing the affairs of the geographic unit, especially in aspects related to labour, education. health, municipalities. social and economic affairs, and cultural activities, in accordance with the overall policy of state. It is also responsible for road building, urban planning, and other tasks, as well as in coordinating these activities with the central government based on:

a Overall national planning and inspection is the responsibility of the central government.

b Participating in the overall national planning and planning for the geographic unit as well as full implementation is the task of the local authority.

2. Financial Affairs: Financial decentralization is a basic component of local government, and it is supposed to lead to better mobilization and more efficient use of resources. To clarify further, it is necessary to distinguish between local and central sources of revenue as follows:

i Central Revenues: Customs Duty, Income tax on Profit of Companies operating at the national level.

The share of the state in the profits of government corporations operating at the national level.

Revenues from the exploitation oil, gas, minerals and fisheries.

Other sources of national/ sovereign nature stipulated by the law.

Water resources are considered of national nature.

Therefore, water use and development in a rational way is a necessity of life, according to guidelines which stipulate where the central responsibilities end and where the local authorities come in.

ii Local Revenues: Local Fees which are enacted by decision of the Local Councils as per a law which specifies the basis and allocation procedures.

Payroll taxes, taxes on professional services, and on commercial activities in the geographic unit.

Company taxes on companies registered in the unit.

Return on Economic Activities in the unit.


Qat Taxes and Fees.

Real Estate Taxes.

Fees on Vehicles, Transportation, Land.

Support from the Central Budget.

Taxes on Environment Protection.

This listing is not exhaustive, but is given as example.

As regards expenditures, they are the allocations in the annual budget of the geographic unit covering social services and economic activities, and other items in the local jurisdiction. Excluded are expenditures on inter-region highways and strategic projects such as oil, gas and mineral projects.

The Central Bank is to establish branches in all regions to handle the accounts of these regions in all fields except in foreign loans. issue of currency, and advance to the government.

3. Economic Affairs: Within the tenet of free market economics, the geographic units compete to create their economic base in production., distribution.

employment. investment options, and to improve services and to care for the citizens.

This competition will induce each local government to push to better performance so that an increasingly improved model of government which cannot lay blame on the Central Authorities for any short comings, as the case is now, because of unclear responsibilities..

Two factors will facilitate the success of the local authorities:

i The general objectives are going to laid out on the basis of the local needs.

ii Supervision of implementation will be local, and the public who elected the local officials will be close enough to watch them.

4. General Security: General security is the responsibility of the local authorities within their regions. but it falls within the overall security of the state.

Thus, the local authorities shall exercise their duties within the guidelines put together by the Ministry of Interior. All local security apparati are under the order and command of the local authorities. and they are armed in a uniform way all over the country. The size of the security apparatus will depend on local needs.

The Ministry of Interior shall supervise and keep track of implementation schedules.

5. Education:

i A unified educational system is to be implemented for the whole nation, And the local authorities shall be responsible for implementation.

ii The technical and vocational institutes and training centres are the direct responsibility of the local authorities, including teacher training, and making available the needs of schools.

iii The Quranic schools are to be established by the local authorities.

iv The local authorities shall abide by the policy and plan of higher education and the development requirements in all fields.

6. Health & Other Services:

i With the exception of handling epidemics at large scale and national medical policies handled in a unified way, all medical issues, including management of hospitals and appointment of doctors, licensing clinics, laboratories, drugstores, pharmacies, x-ray centres, etc. are the jurisdiction of local authorities.

ii All such arrangements also apply in the relations of the central organs with the local authorities in all social and other services.

7. A Civil Service System within the Public Service and System of Work:

i All government employed persons are subject to the same laws.

ii The local authorities have the right to create local incentives, as needed by the local conditions.

iii The local authorities shall keep files of all employees in their geographic unit, and they have full powers to employ. promote, dismiss, and order retirement, and to award leaves, and to grant training locally and abroad.

iv Judicial authorities have their independent system.

8: Board for Calamities: Each geographic unit has its independent emergency board for natural calamities and disasters, with its independent resources.


1. The geographic units are managed by elected local councils which have the power of administrative decision-making, supervision, and holding people accountable within their region, according to the law.

2. An executive office is created in the region which is elected by the elected council members from among them or from outside the councils. A presidential decree is then issued to appoint the person elected by the local council to head the executive office. The law defines the structure of the executive office.

3. The decisions of the local councils are enforced within the geographic unit, and they should not take decisions beyond their units.

4. The decisions of the central government are compulsory to the local councils, provided they do not contradict or undermine the authorities of the local councils.

The law stipulates central supervision of the local councils and their methodology.

5. The laws enacted by the House of Representatives and issued by the head of state are compulsory to all local councils in the republic.

6. All citizens enjoy equal and full rights in all the geographic units, including the right to vote and contest for the organs of the local government. The birth place or place of residence are the base for exercising such rights.

7. The regions of the republic are sub-divided into units (provinces, cantons and districts. respectively) each with its own administrative organs whose duties and responsibilities are to be delineated by the law.

8. The administrative organs of these sub-divisions elect the heads and members of their executive bodies, and a decree of the prime minister is issued on the heads of these organs.

2-3 Reconstruction and Organizing the Armed Forces:

The reconstruction and organization of the armed forces is one of the major issues, and they are directly controlled by the government. It is illegal to establish a military or para-military force part of any organization. A general plan shall be developed to reform, merge, reconstruct and organize the armed forces according to the following principles:

1. The armed forces are for the defence of the borders (land, water and air) of the republic and to defence the sovereignty of the nation.

2. To bring the budget of the Ministry of Defence under control in a way that will enable it to perform its functions in defending the Republic of Yemen.

3. The size of the armed forces is to be determined, and the men distributed to army, navy and air force. No other forces shall be established.

4. To determine the formations of the armed forces according to the potential requirements as stipulated by specialists within the needs of defence of the independence and sovereignty of the nation.

5. To complete the physical and manpower needs of the formations of the armed forces (#4 above), through as restructuring of the current formations.

6. The positioning and location of the armed forces should be based on their size, formation, and completion of physical and manpower needs, according to the following priorities: a) To position the armed forces in the borders.

b) To protect the economic activities of the companies.

c) To re-organize and locate the rest of the units in the regions providing strategic depth as needed, as well as reserve forces.

And in accordance with the principle of reducing the size of the current army, the following principles are to be observed:

Compulsory retirement of all military personnel according to the retirement law.

To initiate the possibility of resignations and voluntary early retirement.

To transfer all military personnel serving in civilian posts to civilian status.

To implement the law of political parties forbidding military personnel to belong to belong to political parties.

To divide the republic into military zones.

To revise the conditions for recruitment in the armed forces by stressing:

a) To serve in the armed forces is a right and duty of all Yemenis, which should be reflected in the structure and enrollment without preferential treatment.

b) To limit to a five-year period the term of all high military personnel in senior command posts.

c) The armed forces must serve as a model for national cohesion based on qualifications and experience, not influenced by factors of politics, familial and tribal ties, sectarian or geographic affiliation. All armed forces are to be restructured so that they are freed from the above factors.

2-4: The Official Media: A national board of the qualified media persons are to be formed to supervise the planning for the official media which replaces the Ministry of Information, so that it serves the media organs by distancing them from any political party, and in a way that will enable them to perform their information/cultural messages.

2-5: Education: To stress the unification of the curricula in all the schools, colleges. institutes, and to remove any distortions, and to work hard to modernize the curricula to produce a unified and capable generation.

2-6: The Supreme Council for National Security:

1. A Supreme Council for National Security is to be formed with the purpose of carrying out studies and research, and to prepare advice to the head of state and government as to how to protect national sovereignty, and the means to consolidate relations between Yemen and the Arab countries and the world, based on the new world conditions. The council shall study ways and means to enable our country avoid the shocks and crisis that have overwhelmed most of the Third World.

2. A law shall be enacted stipulating the guidelines for the duties and functions of the Council.

3. The Council shall be formed of specialists in the political, military, security, economic and social fields.

2-7: The Audit and Control Organization: The Central Organization for Audit and Control has to be activated to carry out independently its responsibilities to supervise and audit. It shall be affiliated directly to the House of Representatives, and its reports shall be available to the public.

The government may establish its control and audit organ for itself.

The persons to manage this organization have to be well qualified, strong, and neutral, and which can withstand any pressure, and can overcome any efforts to block its work or to use its efforts for partisan or favouritism purposes.

2-8: Reform in Public Post: Reform in the public post shall be based on a thorough study of the current situation and the laws on which it is based, the procedures. and all the way up to measuring the performance. Since human beings are the basic element in any management, the efforts for reform have to be addressed to the personnel according to the following guidelines:

a) Simplification and clarification of the systems so that they are understood and implemented easily.

b) Defining clearly the duties, responsibilities and authorities of each post.

c) Defining clear laws for delegation of authority from the senior to the lower posts.

d) To formulate the by-laws and guidelines clearly.

e) To put together a guide for formalities regarding the required documents and procedures.

Stressing the role of the human element requires:

1) Intensifying the continued training programs of the personnel.

2) To pay attention to the work environment, and to create more work opportunities.

3) To neutralize the public post from any external influences by stressing that the public post should be filled according to the laws of the Civil Service. Posts of Vice Minister and above are political appointments.

4) To set up administrative courts within three months, and a maximum of five months, to look into administrative violations.

5) A General Board for Civil Service attached to the cabinet shall be set up to replace the Ministry of Civil Service.


The fact that the structures o the state have not been completed has impacted the economic and financial situations directly. One of the main symptoms has been the absence of an economic and financial policy which regulates this vital sector.

Since the birth of our unified republic, although the stated policy was a free-market system, the necessary requirements for this system have not been put in place.

Thus, chaos and anxiety reigned, and public expenditure became one of the factors which contributed to this anarchy.

All of this has reflected itself on the value of the currency, which has deteriorated so markedly, an which has affected all productive activities in agriculture and industry, and which has led to ever higher cost of living leading to a fall in the real value of salaries. Then there is the dominant effect of the deficit in the government budget.

It is in this light that economic reform becomes an urgent matter within a free market system. To reform the system, the following steps have to be taken:

1. To abide by the allocations for expenditures and revenues in the state budget in a way that will gradually remove the deficit.

Expenditures have to be reduced to the bare minimum, and revenues have to be mobilized.

2. To implement balanced development plans and an annual investment program.

3. To reform the monetary policy by activating the role of the Central Bank of Yemen in a way that does not contradict the activities and role of the commercial banks, and in order to control the deterioration in the value of the local currency. Efforts must be exerted to combat forgery of currency, to organize money changing, and to issue the agreed-upon new currency.

4. To combat corruption, bribery, smuggling of goods, arms, drugs, and administrative negligence, and to make all accountable for their violations.

5. To implement the decisions concerning setting up the Aden Free Zone immediately, and to complete all necessary formalities by the end of this year.

6. To organize and supervise the activities of the government companies and corporations, especially those involving the purchase of foreign exchange to finance activities which have become a drain and a burden on the economy.

7. Taking a swift decision according to which all the raw material for industrial production and inputs for agricultural and fisheries production and other outputs will be treated in the same way as the Central Bank finances the import of basic foodstuffs, so that their price-rise are brought under control, as well as to shore up these sectors.


Given the exceptional importance of the constitution in our lives, it is important to:

1. Abide by the current constitution until it is amended.

2. Given the needed amendments to take the tents of this document into account, serious efforts is to be exerted to amend the constitution within a period of three months, and a maximum of five months. To prepare the draft for the required amendments, a committee is to formed from among the Ulema, members of the Dialogue Committee, and some specialists from Sanaa and Aden universities as well as other public and social personalities. The committee shall work full time on this project, so that it can fulfil its duties within the prescribed period.

3. To revise the parliamentary and local elections law in a full way, especially those aspects based on proportional listing and according to a scientific study of the Yemen and other human experiences in this regard. The elections law shall be revised based on the findings of this stud),.


To implement the contents of this documents, which aims to correct the course of the unified Yemen and modern state-building based on law and order, all national official and popular efforts have to be mobilized, by:

1. Giving the government full powers and putting an end to all interference in its activities.

2. The government has to present an implementation timetable within one months.

3. All aspects of this document which require constitutional amendments shall be implemented immediately once those amendments are carried out. Those aspects which do not require constitutional amendments, shall be implemented at once.

4. All implementation of this document's requirements by the government are public.


1. The Dialogue Committee shall follow-up the implementation of the decisions stipulated in this document.

2. Decrees are to be issued to provide the Dialogue Committee the following: a) To obtain information from any source to enable it carry out its work.

b) The right to use the official media in announcing its statements and communiques related to the progress of work, and whether any side is blocking implementation.

c) The government provides administrative and office requirements.


A committee from the Dialogue Committee shall be formed to discuss with the president and vice president the necessary security measures to sign and start implementation of this document. The time shall be specified according to these arrangements.


The completion of this document, and in agreement among the various parties, represents a strong foundation to reform and correct our political and economic conditions.

Yes, completion of this work required a strong will in words and deeds, unbeholden to any side in our effort to protect the unity, republic and democratic, and the needs of our people for security, stability, prosperity, and other goals.