Unification of Yemen: The Cairo Agreement

28 October, 1972

The two governments have agreed on the establishment of a unified state joining the two portions of Yemen, north and south, in accordance with the bases and principles mentioned hereinafter.

  • Article 1: Unity will be established between the two states of the Yemen Arab Republic and the Popular Democratic Republic of Yemen in which the international personality of both of them will be merged in one international personality and the existence of a unified Yemeni state.

  • Article 2: The new state shall have:

    1. one flag and one emblem;

    2. one capital;

    3. one leadership;

    4. single legislative, executive and judiciary authorities.


  • Article 3:

    1. The organisation of Government in the new state will be republican, national and democratic.

    2. The Constitution of the union will guarantee all the personal and political freedoms of the public and to its various national, professional and trade union foundations and organisations and will adopt all the necessary means to guarantee the practice of these freedoms.

    3. The unified state will guarantee all the gains which the two revolutions of September and October have realised.


  • Article 4: As the first stage towards realisation of unity the necessary measures will be taken for the holding of a summit conference between the Presidents of the two states to consider the immediate necessary measures to finalise unity. This conference will be held at a date to be agreed by the two heads of Government.

  • Article 5: Each of the Presidents of the two states will choose a personal representative, and these two representatives will supervise the work of the expert committees mentioned in Article 7.

  • Article 6: The Arab League will continue to provide the necessary assistance for the achievement of this union based on the desire of the states.

  • Article 7: The summit conference of the two states will establish expert joint committees of an equal number of representatives of the two states for the unification of the organisations (structures) and legislatures existing in each of them. A time limit of a maximum of one year will be laid down for the completion of the talks allotted to them. This year will commence on the date of the signing of this agreement.

  • Article 8: The joint expert committees will be formed of representatives of the two states of a high level and of specialists. These committees have the right to form sub-committees to assist their work. These committees will consist of:

    1. A Committee for Constitutional Affairs. To deal with the drawing up of a draft Constitution.

    2. A Committee of Foreign Affairs, and Diplomatic and Consular Representation. To be concerned with the unification of the foreign policy of the two states and the drawing up of the foundations of the foreign policy of the new state.

    3. A Committee of Economic and Financial Affairs. To be concerned with Economic Affairs, customs, economic development, the unified currency organisation and the budget of the state.

    4. A Committee for Legislature and Judiciary Affairs. To be concerned with the unification of the Legislatures and the drawing up of a unified organisation for the judges.

    5. A Committee for Educational, Cultural and Information Affairs. To be concerned with education at all stages, and culture and information.

    6. A Committee for Health Matters concerned with treatment and hospitals and connected matters.

    7. A Committee for Military Affairs concerned with Defence and Armed Forces and their unification.

    8. A Committee of Administration and Public Utilities, concerned with the organisation of local government and the supervision of the utilities of the state and their conduct.

  • Article 9: When the Committee for Constitutional Affairs has drawn up the draft Constitution it will be submitted on behalf of the two states to the two Legislative Assemblies concerned with agreeing to it in accordance with the Constitution of each state.

  • Article 10:

    1. The Presidents of the two states will delegate to the Legislative Authorities in the two parts power to carry out the operation of a referendum on the Constitution and the election of a united Legislative Authority for the new states in accordance with the new Constitution.

    2. In execution of this the Presidents of the two states will form a joint Ministerial Committee which will include the Ministers of Interior of both parts in order to supervise this work which will take place at most six months from the date of the agreement of the Legislative Authorities in the two states to the draft Constitution.

    3. The Presidents of the two states will call on the Arab League to delegate representatives on its behalf to participate in the work of the Committee.

  • Article 11: The Legislative Assemblies in the two states will disband immediately after the decision on the new Constitution by popular referendum.

  • Article 12: In the event of the agreement of the people on the draft Constitution the new state may be established immediately.

  • Article 13: The new Constitution will come into force immediately on its agreement.


  • Article 14: In execution of the Reconciliation Committee's announcement, and in accordance with the stipulations of the preceding articles the two parties will determine their obligations and decide on their execution.

  • Article 15: This document will be produced in three copies of which the two parties will receive one copy each and the third copy will be kept by the Secretariat General of the Arab League.