Yemen's international relations

Yemen and Saudi Arabia

Almost constantly since its foundation in 1932, Saudi Arabia has been involved in Yemen politically, and sometimes militarily – often with negative consequences for Yemen.

Yemen and Saudi Arabia
A historical review of relations. By Brian Whitaker, 25 March 2015

The Yemeni-Saudi border dispute

For more than 60 years Yemen and Saudi Arabia quarrelled over their largely undefined border. The dispute was eventually settled in 2000 by the Treaty of Jeddah.

The Treaty of Ta'if
29 May 1934 (full text)

Plain tales from the sands
Border relations with Saudi Arabia during the British occupation of southern Yemen
by Jim Ellis (British-Yemeni Society Journal, July 2000)

Saudi-Yemeni Memorandum of Understanding
26 February 1995 (full text)

The Treaty of Jeddah
12 June, 2000

Commentary on the Yemeni-Saudi border agreement
June, 2000

Negotiating the Saudi-Yemeni international boundary
by Richard Schofield (British-Yemeni Society Journal, July 2000)

Maps: territorial claims in the border area
(British-Yemeni Society Journal, July 2000)

'Friends of Yemen' London conference
27 January, 2010 (final statement – full text)

News reports

Pawns of Gulf war live forgotten in Yemen camps
The Guardian, 7-Jan-93

Crisis over the border
Middle East International, 29-Jan-95

Seeking to reassure?
Middle East International, 17-Feb-95

Limited agreement
Middle East International, 3-Mar-95

Breaking the ice
Middle East International, 23-Jun-95

Border tensions
Middle East International, 8-Aug-97

Row over Haramawt
Middle East International, 12-Sep-97

Border deal nearer
Middle East International, 26-Sep-97

Spate of kidnappings
Middle East International, 7-Nov-97

Tensions with the Saudis
Middle East International, 19-Dec-97

Border dispute flares
Middle East International, 5-Jun-98

Border row with the Saudis
Middle East International, 31-Jul-98

Trouble on the border
iddle East International, 11-Feb-00

Reconciliations afoot?
Middle East International, 25-Feb-00

Saudi border deal
Middle East International, 16-Jun-00

Yemen and Iran

The armed conflict that broke out in Yemen in 2014 has often been characterised as a proxy war between Saudi Arabia and Iran. The Houthi rebels who over-ran Sanaa belonged to the Zaidi sect, a branch of Shia Islam. They thus had some religious affinity with predominantly Shia Iran.The words "Houthi" and"Iranian-backed" soon becamecoupled together in virtually every media report about the conflict. Nobody – least of all, the Iranians – would deny that Iran supports the Houthis. But how extensive is that support and what forms does it take?

Yemen and Iran
Blog post by Brian Whitaker looking at the evidence of Iranian involvement in Yemen.30 March 2015

Six reasons why Iran won’t join the war in Yemen
By Hassan Ahmadian, Al-Monitor, 7 March 2016

The Conflict in Yemen: A Case Study of Iran’s Limited Power
By Shlomo Brom and Yoel Guzansky, INSS Insight No. 747, 16 September 2015

Iran's Game in Yemen
Why Tehran Isn't to Blame for the Civil War
By Mohsen Milani, Foreign Affairs, 19 April 2015

Yemen and Oman

Oman and Yemen: an historic re-encounter
by Fred Halliday (British-Yemeni Society Journal, July 2000)

Yemen and Eritrea

The Hunaish islands dispute

In December 1995, Eritrean forces seized a small island in the Red Sea which was claimed by Yemen. The dispute was eventually settled by international arbitration.

Clash over islands
Middle East International, 5 Jan 1996

French mediation
Middle East International, 2 Feb 1996

To the Security Council
Middle East International, 1 Mar 1996

Shuttle diplomacy
Middle East International, May 1996

Solution at hand
Middle East International, 24 May 1996

Findings of the arbitration court
9 October, 1998

Favourable ruling
Middle East International, 16 October 1998

Yemen's claim to Hunaish
Evidence from maps in the US Library of Congress (from the Ministry of Information website)

Yemen and the islands of the Red Sea
(from Ministry of Information website)

The Eritrea/Yemen Arbitration
Paper by Barbara Kwiatkowska, 2004

Documents on the international arbitration
from the Permanent Court of Arbitration

The international maritime boundary line